① Compare And Contrast Carl Rogers And Person-Centered Therapy

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Compare And Contrast Carl Rogers And Person-Centered Therapy

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Our Services When it comes to essay writing, an in-depth research is a big deal. Need some help? We will call you back in 15 min. A study group is the first level of integration of a psychoanalytical body within the IPA, followed by a provisional society and finally a member society. Until the establishment of the Division of Psychoanalysis, psychologists who had trained in independent institutes had no national organization. The Division of Psychoanalysis now has approximately 4, members and approximately 30 local chapters in the United States.

The Division of Psychoanalysis holds two annual meetings or conferences and offers continuing education in theory, research and clinical technique, as do their affiliated local chapters. This organization is affiliated with the IPA. In there were approximately 3, individual members in 22 countries, speaking 18 different languages. There are also 25 psychoanalytic societies. Until it was known as the National Membership Committee on Psychoanalysis. The organization was founded because although social workers represented the larger number of people who were training to be psychoanalysts, they were underrepresented as supervisors and teachers at the institutes they attended.

It holds a bi-annual national conference and numerous annual local conferences. Experiences of psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists and research into infant and child development have led to new insights. Theories have been further developed and the results of empirical research are now more integrated in the psychoanalytic theory. Soon after, the Institute of Psychoanalysis was established to administer the Society's activities.

These include: the training of psychoanalysts, the development of the theory and practice of psychoanalysis, the provision of treatment through The London Clinic of Psychoanalysis, the publication of books in The New Library of Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Ideas. The Institute of Psychoanalysis also publishes The International Journal of Psychoanalysis , maintains a library, furthers research, and holds public lectures. The society has a Code of Ethics and an Ethical Committee.

The society, the institute and the clinic are all located at Byron House in West London. The Society is a constituent society of the International Psychoanalytical Association , IPA, a body with members on all five continents which safeguards professional and ethical practice. All members of the British Psychoanalytic Council are required to undertake continuing professional development , CPD. Members of the Society teach and hold posts on other approved psychoanalytic courses, e.

University College London. Sandler , Hanna Segal , J. Sutherland and Donald Winnicott. The Institute of Psychoanalysis is the foremost publisher of psychoanalytic literature. The Society, in conjunction with Random House , will soon publish a new, revised and expanded Standard Edition. With the New Library of Psychoanalysis the Institute continues to publish the books of leading theorists and practitioners. Now in its 84th year, it has one of the largest circulations of any psychoanalytic journal. Psychoanalytical practice is emerging slowly in India, but is not yet recognised by the government. In , India decriminalised suicide in its mental health bill. There are different forms of psychoanalysis and psychotherapies in which psychoanalytic thinking is practiced.

Besides classical psychoanalysis there is for example psychoanalytic psychotherapy , a therapeutic approach which widens "the accessibility of psychoanalytic theory and clinical practices that had evolved over plus years to a larger number of individuals. Over a hundred years of case reports and studies in the journal Modern Psychoanalysis , the Psychoanalytic Quarterly , the International Journal of Psychoanalysis and the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association have analyzed the efficacy of analysis in cases of neurosis and character or personality problems.

Psychoanalysis modified by object relations techniques has been shown to be effective in many cases of ingrained problems of intimacy and relationship cf. Psychoanalytic treatment, in other situations, may run from about a year to many years, depending on the severity and complexity of the pathology. Psychoanalytic theory has, from its inception, been the subject of criticism and controversy. Freud remarked on this early in his career, when other physicians in Vienna ostracized him for his findings that hysterical conversion symptoms were not limited to women. Challenges to analytic theory began with Otto Rank and Alfred Adler turn of the 20th century , continued with behaviorists e.

Wolpe into the s and '50s, and have persisted e. Criticisms come from those who object to the notion that there are mechanisms, thoughts or feelings in the mind that could be unconscious. Criticisms also have been leveled against the idea of "infantile sexuality" the recognition that children between ages two and six imagine things about procreation. Criticisms of theory have led to variations in analytic theories, such as the work of Ronald Fairbairn , Michael Balint , and John Bowlby. In the past 30 years or so, the criticisms have centered on the issue of empirical verification. Psychoanalysis has been used as a research tool into childhood development cf.

Most recently, psychoanalytic researchers who have integrated attachment theory into their work, including Alicia Lieberman, Susan Coates , and Daniel Schechter have explored the role of parental traumatization in the development of young children's mental representations of self and others. The psychoanalytic profession has been resistant to researching efficacy. Meta-analyses in and found support or evidence for the efficacy of psychoanalytic therapy, thus further research is needed. In , the American Psychological Association made comparisons between psychodynamic treatment and a non-dynamic competitor and found that 6 were superior, 5 were inferior, 28 had no difference and 63 were adequate.

The study found that this could be used as a basis "to make psychodynamic psychotherapy an 'empirically validated' treatment. A meta-analysis of Long Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in found an overall effect size of. This study concluded the recovery rate following LTPP was equal to control treatments, including treatment as usual, and found the evidence for the effectiveness of LTPP to be limited and at best conflicting. According to a French review conducted by INSERM , psychoanalysis was presumed or proven effective at treating panic disorder , post-traumatic stress , and personality disorders , but did not find evidence of its effectiveness in treating schizophrenia , obsessive compulsive disorder , specific phobia , bulimia and anorexia.

A systematic review of the medical literature by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that no data exist demonstrating that psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in treating schizophrenia and severe mental illness, and cautioned that medication should always be used alongside any type of talk therapy in schizophrenia cases. The strongest reason for considering Freud a pseudo-scientist is that he claimed to have tested — and thus to have provided the most cogent grounds for accepting — theories which are either untestable or even if testable had not been tested.

It is spurious claims to have tested an untestable or untested theory which are the most pertinent grounds for deeming Freud and his followers pseudoscientists Both Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized in extreme terms. Although numerous studies have shown that the efficacy of therapy is primarily related to the quality of the therapist, [] rather than the school or technique or training, a French report from INSERM concluded that psychoanalytic therapy is less effective than other psychotherapies including cognitive behavioral therapy for certain diseases. This report used a meta-analysis of numerous other studies to find whether the treatment was "proven" or "presumed" to be effective on different diseases. The theoretical foundations of psychoanalysis lie in the same philosophical currents that lead to interpretive phenomenology rather than in those that lead to scientific positivism , making the theory largely incompatible with positivist approaches to the study of the mind.

Early critics of psychoanalysis believed that its theories were based too little on quantitative and experimental research , and too much on the clinical case study method. Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not falsifiable : []. And as for Freud's epic of the Ego, the Super-ego, and the Id, no substantially stronger claim to scientific status can be made for it than for Homer's collected stories from the Olympus. In addition, Imre Lakatos wrote that "Freudians have been nonplussed by Popper's basic challenge concerning scientific honesty. Indeed, they have refused to specify experimental conditions under which they would give up their basic assumptions.

Scruton nevertheless concluded that psychoanalysis is not genuinely scientific, on the grounds that it involves an unacceptable dependence on metaphor. Martin Seligman , a prominent academic in positive psychology wrote that: []. Thirty years ago, the cognitive revolution in psychology overthrew both Freud and the behaviorists, at least in academia. The evidence, however, is that each drives the other at times. Psychoanalysis, is it a science?

It does not meet the criteria unified science, defined domain and methodology. It corresponds to the traits of a philosophical sect closed organisation, highly personal initiation, a doctrine which is changeable but defined by its official adoption, cult and legend of the founder. Some have accused Freud of fabrication, most famously in the case of Anna O. Richard Feynman wrote off psychoanalysts as mere "witch doctors:" []. If you look at all of the complicated ideas that they have developed in an infinitesimal amount of time, if you compare to any other of the sciences how long it takes to get one idea after the other, if you consider all the structures and inventions and complicated things, the ids and the egos, the tensions and the forces, and the pushes and the pulls, I tell you they can't all be there.

It's too much for one brain or a few brains to have cooked up in such a short time. Likewise, psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey , in Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists , agreed that psychoanalytic theories have no more scientific basis than the theories of traditional native healers, "witchdoctors" or modern "cult" alternatives such as EST. She scrutinized and rejected the validity of Freud's drive theory , including the Oedipus complex, which, according to her and Jeffrey Masson , blames the child for the abusive sexual behavior of adults. He concluded that there is little evidence to support the existence of the Oedipus complex.

Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze claimed that the institution of psychoanalysis has become a center of power and that its confessional techniques resemble the Christian tradition. Many aspects of Freudian theory are indeed out of date, and they should be: Freud died in , and he has been slow to undertake further revisions. His critics, however, are equally behind the times, attacking Freudian views of the s as if they continue to have some currency in their original form. Psychodynamic theory and therapy have evolved considerably since when Freud's bearded countenance was last sighted in earnest. Contemporary psychoanalysts and psychodynamic therapists no longer write much about ids and egos, nor do they conceive of treatment for psychological disorders as an archaeological expedition in search of lost memories.

A survey of scientific research suggested that while personality traits corresponding to Freud's oral, anal, Oedipal, and genital phases can be observed, they do not necessarily manifest as stages in the development of children. These studies also have not confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences. What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. The idea of "unconscious" is contested because human behavior can be observed while human mental activity has to be inferred. However, the unconscious is now a popular topic of study in the fields of experimental and social psychology e.

The idea of unconscious, and the transference phenomenon, have been widely researched and, it is claimed, validated in the fields of cognitive psychology and social psychology, [] though a Freudian interpretation of unconscious mental activity is not held by the majority of cognitive psychologists. Recent developments in neuroscience have resulted in one side arguing that it has provided a biological basis for unconscious emotional processing in line with psychoanalytic theory i.

Shlomo Kalo explains that the scientific materialism that flourished in the 19th century severely harmed religion and rejected whatever called spiritual. The institution of the confession priest in particular was badly damaged. The empty void that this institution left behind was swiftly occupied by the newborn psychoanalysis. In his writings, Kalo claims that psychoanalysis basic approach is erroneous. It represents the mainline wrong assumptions that happiness is unreachable and that the natural desire of a human being is to exploit his fellow men for his own pleasure and benefit. Jacques Derrida incorporated aspects of psychoanalytic theory into his theory of deconstruction in order to question what he called the ' metaphysics of presence '.

Derrida also turns some of these ideas against Freud, to reveal tensions and contradictions in his work. For example, although Freud defines religion and metaphysics as displacements of the identification with the father in the resolution of the Oedipal complex, Derrida insists that the prominence of the father in Freud's own analysis is itself indebted to the prominence given to the father in Western metaphysics and theology since Plato. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Psychological theory and therapy established by Sigmund Freud. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. Child psychoanalysis Depth psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory.

Main article: Robert Langs. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. October Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a body of knowledge. In what might be considered an unfortunately abbreviated description, Freud said that anyone who recognizes transference and resistance is a psychoanalyst, even if he comes to conclusions other than his own.

David Rapaport a once defined the analytic situation as carrying the method of interpersonal relationship to its last consequences. Archived 10 June A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis. The science of psychoanalysis is the bedrock of psychodynamic understanding and forms the fundamental theoretical frame of reference for a variety of forms of therapeutic intervention, embracing not only psychoanalysis itself but also various forms of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and related forms of therapy using psychodynamic concepts. Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry 10th ed. However, its limitations are more widely recognized and it is assumed that many important advances in the future will come from other areas, particularly biologic psychiatry.

As yet unresolved is the appropriate role of psychoanalytic thinking in organizing the treatment of patients and the training of psychiatrists after that biologic revolution has born fruit. Will treatments aimed at biologic defects or abnormalities become technical steps in a program organized in a psychoanalytic framework? Will psychoanalysis serve to explain and guide supportive intervention for individuals whose lives are deformed by biologic defect and therapeutic interventions, much as it now does for patients with chronic physical illness, with the psychoanalyst on the psychiatric dialysis program?

Or will we look back on the role of psychoanalysis in the treatment of the seriously mentally ill as the last and most scientifically enlightened phase of the humanistic tradition in psychiatry, a tradition that became extinct when advances in biology allowed us to cure those we had so long only comforted? Archived 6 June Marcus, I. Masturbation from Infancy to Senescence. Slavson, S. London: Penguin Books. Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy. Stanford: Stanford University Press. The Revision of Psychoanalysis.

New York: Open Road. The Future of Psychoanalysis. Frisch, R. Hinshelwood, and J-M. Karnac Publishing. London: Routledge. ISBN Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: W. Cambridge University Press. Sigmund Freud on Aphasia New York: International Universities Press. Studies on Hysteria , Standard Editions 2, edited by J. London: Hogarth Press. Revue neurologique 4 6 — Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Paris: Fayard. Lay summary via University of Washington. Open Court. Transcribed version via Michigan Mental Health Networker. The Interpretation of Dreams. Psychoanalytic Concepts and the Structural Theory. Also available via Internet Archive. Nature 3 Nature Publishing Group Bibcode : Natur.

International Psycho-Analytic Library 4, edited by E. London: International Psycho-Analytic Press. Glossary via University of Notre Dame. S2CID Organisational Behaviour. Global Professional Publishing Limited. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence revised ed. Contemporary Psychoanalysis and the Legacy of the Third Reich. Feminine psychology. OCLC Masochism, the Ego Ideal and the Psychology of Women. Norcross; Gary R. VandenBos; Donald K. Freedheim History of Psychotherapy: Continuity and Change. American Psychological Association. Dorpat, Theodore, B. Killingmo, and S. Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association — Literary criticism : an introduction to theory and practice.

Pearson Longman. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson. The Psychiatric Quarterly. ISSN PMID Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson. Borderline Patients: Clinical Perspectives. Retrieved The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. On Adolescence. Gottschall and D. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Television: A Challenge to the Psychoanalytic Establishment. Fundamentals of Adaptive Psychotherapy and Counseling.

London: Palgrave-MacMillan. Influence and Autonomy in Psychoanalysis. The Analytic Press. Archived from the original on New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux. Does the Oedipus complex exist? The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Ground Rules in Psychotherapy and Counselling. London: Karnac. The Ego and Analysis of Defense. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. PMC Retrieved July 1, The Week. Business Insider. Psychology: Tenth edition in modules. New York: Worth Publishers. Psychodynamic Psychiatry. Archived from the original PDF on Harvard Review of Psychiatry.

Jewett, and Marielle Bassel. Anestis, and Scott O. American Journal of Psychiatry. Lambert Clinical Psychology Review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. CiteSeerX The British Journal of Psychiatry. Buchanan, Faith B. Dickerson, and Lisa B. Retrieved 8 May How The Mind Works. Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Harvard University Press. Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. No, Not Really " updated ed. John F. Berkley: University of California, Berkeley.

Archived from the original 10 May No, Not Really. Atkinson, R. Atkinson, E. Smith, D. Bem, and S. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. And as for Freud's epic of the Ego, the Super-ego, and the Id, no substantially stronger claim to scientific status can be made for it than for Homer's collected stories from Olympus. Zbl Terms such as subconsciousness or superego that are frequently used in psychoanalysis originated by Sigmund Freud — are relegated to the realm of pseudoscience where most of Freud's work justifiably belongs. Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists. Albany, p. Why Freud was wrong. Sin, science and psychoanalysis. London: Harper Collins. Translated and published in Le livre noir de la psychoanalyse: Vivre, penser et aller mieux sans Freud , edited by C.

Meyer, with M. Borch-Jacobsen, J. Cottraux, D. Pleux, and J. Van Rillaer. Lakatos, J. Worrall , and G. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sexual Desire: A Philosophical Investigation. Phoenix Books. The Skeptical Inquirer. Prometheus Lectures. London: Penguin. Feynman was also speaking here of psychiatrists. Thou shalt not be aware: society's betrayal of the child. NY: Meridan Printing. New York: Routledge.

London: Tavistock. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. London: Athlone. November Vol. New York: Basic Books. Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. UK: D. Chicago: University of Chicago. Introductions [ edit ] Brenner, Charles An Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis. Elliott, Anthony Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction 2nd ed. Duke University Press. Fine, Reuben The History of Psychoanalysis. Northvale: Jason Aronson. University of Nebraska Press. Freud, Sigmund []. Reference works [ edit ] de Mijolla, Alain , ed. Laplanche, Jean , and J. Pontalis An Outline of Psychoanalysis. Hypothesis and Evidence in Psychoanalysis. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique new ed. Karnac Books. A critical view of Freudian theory. Free Association Books. Key Writings. International Universities Press. Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic Strategies. Yale University Press. Liberating Oedipus? Psychoanalysis as Critical Theory. Lexington Books. The Kristeva Reader , edited by T. Columbia University Press. ISBN — The Kleinian Development new ed.

Black Freud and beyond: a history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Pollock, Griselda Zajko and M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Destruction as cause of becoming. Presentations of Gender. Aziz, Robert

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