✯✯✯ What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided
And to that he bears witness. I think the back-and-forth structure of the email exchange was really important for me in What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided regard. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each There are several forms of the share that the parents get in the inheritance. What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided they took the calf What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided worship] after clear evidences had come to them, and We pardoned that. The district court once What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided found the customer orientation definition publicity, the denial of defense witnesses, and improperly drawn What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided had denied Calley a fair trial, and ordered Becoming A Certified Medical Assistant released on September 25, What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided Do you know why? While I was typing, I had the mental image What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided my characters before me, doing whatever it was that the scene required—walking around, eating dinner, talking on the phone, or What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided. Views Read Edit View history.
How one piece of legislation divided a nation - Ben Labaree, Jr.
Some soldiers refused to answer questions point-blank on the witness stand by citing the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. Kennedy to testify or face contempt of court charges. Calley, however, returned 10 minutes later and became enraged by the fact that the villagers were still alive. After telling Meadlo that he had wanted them dead, Calley backed up about 20 feet, opened fire on them himself and ordered Meadlo to join in, which he did. Meadlo then proceeded to round up more villagers to be massacred. Conti's testimony corroborated that given by Meadlo, and laid the blame on Calley not only for the initiation of the massacre but also for the participation in it by his subordinates.
Calley's original defense, that the death of the villagers was the result of an accidental airstrike , was overcome by prosecution witnesses. In his new defense, Calley claimed he was following the orders of his immediate superior, Captain Ernest Medina. Whether this order was actually given is disputed; Medina was acquitted of all charges relating to the incident at a separate trial in August Taking the witness stand, Calley, under the direct examination by his civilian defense lawyer George W.
Latimer , claimed that on the previous day, his commanding officer, Captain Medina, made it clear that his unit was to move into the village and that everyone was to be shot, saying that they all were Viet Cong. On direct examination during his court martial, Calley stated:. Well, I was ordered to go in there and destroy the enemy. That was my job on that day. That was the mission I was given. I did not sit down and think in terms of men, women, and children. They were all classified the same, and that was the classification that we dealt with, just as enemy soldiers I felt then and I still do that I acted as I was directed, and I carried out the orders that I was given, and I do not feel wrong in doing so, sir.
The prosecution called over witnesses to testify against Calley during the trial. After President Nixon intervened in the trial, the assistant prosecutor, Captain Partin, wrote a letter to the White House saying that the presidential intervention had "degraded" and "defiled" the military justice system. After deliberating for 79 hours, the six-officer jury five of whom had served in Vietnam convicted him on March 29, , of the premeditated murder of 22 South Vietnamese civilians.
On March 31, , Calley was sentenced to life imprisonment and hard labor at Fort Leavenworth ,  which includes the United States Disciplinary Barracks , the Department of Defense 's only maximum security prison. Many in the United States were outraged by what they perceived to be an overly harsh sentence for Calley. After the conviction, the White House received over 5, telegrams; the ratio was to 1 in favor of leniency. In a war, this is natural. Summers Jr. Three days after Calley's conviction, President Richard Nixon ordered Calley removed from prison and placed under house arrest at Fort Benning.
Albert O. Connor , Commanding General of Third Army,  in his capacity as convenor of the court-martial, reduced Calley's sentence to 20 years in prison. On February 27, , Judge J. Robert Elliott granted a writ of habeas corpus and set Calley free on bail. The court held that Calley had been improperly convicted due to extensive pre-trial publicity, the military court's refusal to permit certain defense witnesses, the refusal of the United States House of Representatives to release testimony about the My Lai massacre taken in executive session, and inadequate notice of charges.
Callaway reviewed Calley's conviction and sentence as required by law. After reviewing the conclusions of the court-martial, Court of Military Review, and Court of Military Appeals, Callaway reduced Calley's sentence to just 10 years. Under military regulations, a prisoner is eligible for parole after serving one-third of their sentence. This made Calley eligible for parole after serving three years and four months. A three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit reversed the district court's ruling and returned Calley to custody on June 13, Powell Jr.
The district court once more found the pre-trial publicity, the denial of defense witnesses, and improperly drawn charges had denied Calley a fair trial, and ordered him released on September 25, The full court ruled 8-to-5 to overturn the district court, and ordered Calley's conviction and sentence reinstated on September 10, Calley appealed the Fifth Circuit's ruling to the U. Supreme Court, but it declined to hear his case on April 5, Judge J.
Robert Elliott attended the wedding. Calley said:. I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families. I am very sorry. As of , he was living in Gainesville, Florida. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American war criminal. Calley's mugshot. Civil Rights Digital Library. University System of Georgia. Retrieved Second lieutenant William Calley was a member of the Alpha Company, 1st battalion, 20th infantry regiment, 11th infantry brigade while in Vietnam. William Calley".
May 12, Archived from the original on November 18, ISBN March Trial International. Archived from the original on December 14, The My Lai massacre in American history and memory. Manchester UP. The Permission to Marry Four Women. If it were allowed for them to have more than four wives, the Ayah would have mentioned it. It may as well be that you will not remain alive but for a little longer. By Allah! You will take back your wives and your money, or I will take possession of this all and will order that your grave be stoned as is the case with the grave of Abu Righal from Thamud, who was saved from their fate because he was in the Sacred Area.
But, when he left it, he was tormented like they were. Therefore, had it been allowed for men to marry more than four women at the same time, the Prophet would have allowed Ghilan to keep more than four of his wives since they all embraced Islam with him. When the Prophet commanded him to keep just four of them and divorce the rest, this indicated that men are not allowed to keep more than four wives at a time under any circumstances. If this is the case concerning those who already had more than four wives upon embracing Islam, then this ruling applies even more so to marrying more than four. But if you fear that you will not be able to deal justly with them , then only one or what your right hands possess. The Ayah commands, if you fear that you will not be able to do justice between your wives by marrying more than one, then marry only one wife, or satisfy yourself with only female captives, for it is not obligatory to treat them equally, rather it is recommended.
So if one does so, that is good, and if not, there is no harm on him. In another Ayah, Allah said,. And give to the women whom you marry their Saduqat Nihlah refers to the dowry. So Allah is commanding: Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right. If the wife gives him part or all of that dowry with a good heart, her husband is allowed to take it, as it is lawful for him in this case. This is why Allah said afterwards,. But if they, of their own pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it, and enjoy it without fear of any harm. And give not unto the unwise your wealth which Allah has made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.
And test orphans until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgment in them, release their property to them, but consume it not wastefully and hastily, fearing that they should grow up. And whoever among guardians is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable according to his work. And when you release their property to them, take a witness in their presence; and Allah is All-Sufficient in taking account.
Holding the Property of the Unwise in Escrow. Allah prohibited giving the unwise the freedom to do as they wish with wealth, which Allah has made as a means of support for people. This ruling sometimes applies because of being young, as young people are incapable of making wise decisions. It also applies in cases of insanity, erratic behavior and having a weak intellect or religious practice. It applies in cases of bankruptcy, when the debtors ask that the property of a bankrupt person is put in escrow, when his debts cannot be paid off with his money. And give not unto the unwise your property refers to children and women.
Spending on the Unwise with Fairness. Rather, hold on to your money, take care of it, and be the one who spends on them for clothes, food and provision. One should spend on them for clothes and provisions, and be good to them, such as saying good words to them. The age of puberty according to the majority of scholars comes when the child has a wet dream. There is no orphan after the age of puberty nor vowing to be silent throughout the day to the night. Or, the age of fifteen is considered the age of adolescence. But I was presented in front of him on the eve of the battle of Al-Khandaq The Trench when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed me to join that battle.
The scholars of Fiqh stated that when the child becomes good in the religion and wise concerning with money, then the money that his caretaker was keeping for him should be surrendered to him. But consume it not wastefully and hastily, fearing that they should grow up. Allah commands that the money of the orphan should not be spent unnecessarily,. And whoever among guardians is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable. And when you release their property to them. Allah said next,. Indeed, Allah knows all of that. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,.
O Abu Dharr! Verily, you are weak, and I love for you what I love for myself. There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest in relation, whether the property be small or large — a legal share. And when the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor are present at the time of division, give them from the property, and speak to them words of kindness and justice. And let those executors and guardians have the same fear in their minds as they would have for their own, if they had left weak offspring behind. So, let them have Taqwa of Allah and speak truthfully. Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only a fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire! Allah revealed;.
There is a share for men from what is left by parents and those nearest in relation. I have two daughters whose father died, and they do not own anything. Allah knows best. And when the relatives and the orphans and the poor are present at the time of division , was not abrogated. Others say that this refers to the bequeathal at the time of death. And others say that it was abrogated.
And when are present at the time of division , refers to divisions of inheritance. So, when poor relatives, who are ineligible for inheritance, orphans, and the poor attend the division of the inheritance, which is sometimes substantial, their hearts will feel eager to have a share, seeing each eligible person assuming his share; while they are desperate, yet are not given anything. Allah the Most Kind, Most Compassionate, commands that they should have a share in the inheritance as an act of kindness, charity, compassion and mercy for them.
Allah commands whoever hears such will to fear Allah, and direct the dying man to do what is right and to be fair, being as eager to protect the inheritors of the dying man as he would be with his own. I am wealthy and have no inheritors except a daughter. Allah proclaims that those who unjustly consume the wealth of orphans, will be eating fire into their stomach, this is why Allah said,. Avoid the seven great destructive sins. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the only heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or sisters , the mother has a sixth.
The distribution in all cases is after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit, these fixed shares are ordained by Allah. Learning the Various Shares of the Inheritance is Encouraged. Learning this knowledge is encouraged, especially the specific things mentioned in the Ayat. The Reason Behind Revealing Ayah He asked for some water, performed ablution with it, then poured it on me, and I regained consciousness. The remainder of the Six compilers also collected this Hadith.
Their uncle took their money and did not leave anything for them. They will not be married unless they have money. Yet, we mentioned the Hadith here just as Al-Bukhari did. The people of Jahiliyyah used to give the males, but not the females, a share in the inheritance. Therefore, Allah commands that both males and females take a share in the inheritance, although the portion of the males is twice as much as that of the females.
There is a distinction because men need money to spend on their dependants, commercial transactions, work and fulfillling their obligations. Consequently, men get twice the portion of the inheritance that females get. An authentic Hadith stated that a captured woman was looking for her child and when she found him, she held him, gave him her breast and nursed him. The Messenger of Allah said to his Companions,. Allah is more merciful with His servants than this woman is with her own child.
Then Allah cancelled whatever He willed from that custom and ordained that the male get twice the amount inherited by the female, and for each parent a sixth of the whole legacy , for the wife an eighth or a fourth, and for the husband a half or a fourth. So this is proven in the Book and the Sunnah. If there are two daughters, then there are texts to prove they share a half. Therefore, two-thirds is the share of the two daughters or sisters, and Allah knows best.
Share of the Parents in the Inheritance. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each There are several forms of the share that the parents get in the inheritance. If the deceased left behind children, the parents get a sixth each. When the deceased had only one daughter, she gets half of the inheritance and the parents each one sixth, and another sixth is given to the father. When the parents are the only inheritors, the mother gets one-third while the father gets the remaining two-thirds. If the deceased had a surviving spouse, the spouse gets half, in the case of a husband, or a fourth in the case of a surviving wife.
In both cases, the mother of the deceased gets one-third of the remaining inheritance. Allah has given the mother one-half of what the father gets. Therefore, the mother gets a third of the remaining inheritance while the father gets two-thirds. Yet, their presence reduces the share of the mother to one-sixth instead of one-third, and the father gets the rest, when there are no other heirs. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Qatadah commented on the Ayah,.
If the deceased left brothers or sisters , the mother has a sixth. The mother does not spend from her money for this purpose. The scholars of the Salaf and the Khalaf agree that paying debts comes before fulfilling the will, and this is apparent to those who read the Ayah carefully. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit. Allah abrogated this practice and appointed a fixed share for the children and for the parents. One may derive benefit in this life or for the Hereafter from his parents, the likes of which he could not get from his children. The opposite of this could also be true. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit, : since benefit could come from one or the other of these relatives, We appointed a fixed share of inheritance for each.
In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their your wives share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in Kalalah has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies he or she may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused to anyone.
Share of the Spouses in the Inheritance. Allah says to the husband, you get half of what your wife leaves behind if she dies and did not have a child. If she had a child, you get one-fourth of what she leaves behind, after payment of legacies that she may have bequeathed, or her debts. We mentioned before that payment of debts comes before fulfilling the will, and then comes the will, then the inheritance, and there is a consensus on this matter among the scholars. And the rule applies to the grandchildren as well as the children, even if they are great-grandchildren or even further in generation Allah then said,.
In that which you leave, their your wives share is a fourth and if there is more than one wife, they all share in the fourth, or one-eighth that the wife gets. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question was left in Kalalah. Kalalah is a derivative of Iklil; the crown that surrounds the head. However, if my opinion is wrong, it will be my error and because of the evil efforts of Shaytan, and Allah and His Messenger have nothing to do with it. Kalalah refers to the man who has neither descendants nor ascendants. Qatadah reported that this is the view of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.
Each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third. First, they get a share in the inheritance on account of their mother. Second, the males and females among them get the same share. Fourth, they do not have more than a third, no matter how numerous they were. After payment of legacies he or she may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused to anyone. Indeed, whoever does this, will have disputed with Allah concerning His decision and division.
Allah has given each his fixed due right. Therefore, there is no will for a rightful inheritor. These are the limits set by Allah, and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow in Paradise , to abide therein, and is the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His set limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall suffer a disgraceful torment. Warning Against Transgressing the Limits for Inheritance. This includes what Allah has alloted for the heirs, according to the degree of relation they have to the deceased, and their degree of dependency on him.
Therefore, do not transgress or violate them. So Allah said;. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, regarding the inheritance, and does not add or decrease any of these fixed shares by use of tricks and plots. Rather, he gives each his appointed share as Allah commanded, ordained and decided,. Will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow in Paradise , to abide therein, and is the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His set limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment. This is because he changed what Allah has ordained and disputed with His judgment. Indeed, this is the behavior of those who do not agree with what Allah has decided and divided, and this is why Allah punishes them with humiliation in the eternal, painful torment.
A man might perform the actions of righteous people for seventy years, but when it is time to compile his will, he commits injustice. So his final work will be his worst, and he thus enters the Fire. A man might perform the deeds of evil people for seventy years, yet he is fair in his will. So his final work will be his best, and he thus enters Paradise. A man or a woman might perform actions in obedience to Allah for sixty years. Yet, when they are near death, they leave an unfair will and thus acquire the Fire. Abu Hurayrah then recited the Ayah,.
After payment of legacies he or she may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused , until,. And those of your women who commit illegal sexual intercourse, take the evidence of four witnesses from among you against them; and if they testify, confine them i. And the two persons among you who commit illegal sexual intercourse, punish them both. And if they repent and do righteous good deeds, leave them alone.
At the begining of Islam, the ruling was that if a woman commits adultery as stipulated by sufficient proof, she was confined to her home, without leave, until she died. One day, Allah sent down a revelation to him, and when the Messenger was relieved of its strain, he said,. Take from me: Allah has made some other way for them. The married with the married, the unmarried with the unmarried.
The married gets a hundred lashes and stoning to death, while the unmarried gets a hundred lashes then banishment for a year. Take from me, take from me. Allah has made some other way for them: the unmarried gets a hundred lashes and banishment for one year, while the married gets a hundred lashes and stoning to death. This was the ruling until Allah abrogated it with flogging or stoning, as we stated. Whoever you catch committing the act of the people of Lut homosexuality , then kill both parties to the act. And if they repent and do righteous good deeds , by refraining from that evil act, and thereafter their actions become righteous,. The following is recorded in the Two Sahihs:.
When the slave-girl of one of you commits illegal sexual intercouse, let him flog her and not chastise her afterwards. For them, We have prepared a painful torment. Repentance is Accepted Until one Faces death. Allah states that He accepts repentance of the servant who commits an error in ignorance and then repents, even just before he sees the angel who captures the soul, before his soul reaches his throat.
Allah accepts the repentance of the servant as long as the soul does not reach the throat. Surely, when hope in continued living diminishes, the angel of death comes forth and the soul reaches the throat, approaches the chest and arrives at the state where it is being gradually pulled out, then there is no accepted repentance, nor a way out of that certain end. The day that some of the signs of your Lord do come, no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before, nor earned good through his faith. Consequently, when the disbeliever dies while still a disbeliever and polytheist, his sorrow and repentance shall not avail him. Allah accepts the repentance of His servant, or forgives His servant, as long as the veil does not drop.
You are not permitted to inherit women against their will, nor to prevent them from marriage in order to get part of the dowry what you have given them, unless they commit open Fahishah. And live with them honorably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good. But if you intend to replace a wife by another and you have given one of them a Qintar, take not the least bit of it back; would you take it wrongfully without a right and with a manifest sin And how could you take it back while you have gone in unto each other, and they have taken from you a firm and strong covenant And marry not women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed; indeed it was shameful and Maqtan, and an evil way.
If one of them wants, he would marry her, give her in marriage, or prevent her from marriage, for they had more right to her than her own family. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed about this practice,. Women Should not Be Treated with Harshness. Meaning that if the wife commits adultery, you are allowed to take back the dowry you gave her. Ibn Jarir chose the view that it is general, encompasses all these meanings, adultery, disobedience, defiance, rudeness, and so forth.
And live with them honorably , by saying kind words to them, treating them kindly and making your appearance appealing for them, as much as you can, just as you like the same from them. Allah said in another Ayah,. The Messenger of Allah said,. The best among you is he who is the best with his family. Verily, I am the best one among you with my family. It was the practice of the Messenger of Allah to be kind, cheerful, playful with his wives, compassionate, spending on them and laughing with them. This occurred before I gained weight, and afterwards I raced with him again, and he won that race.
He said,. He and his wife would sleep in the same bed, he would remove his upper garment, sleeping in only his lower garment. Allah says that your patience, which is demonstrated by keeping wives whom you dislike, carries good rewards for you in this life and the Hereafter. No believing man should hate his believing wife. If he dislikes a part of her conduct, he would surely like another. The Prohibition of Taking Back the Dowry. But if you intend to replace a wife by another and you have given one of them a Qintar, take not the least bit of it back; would you take it wrongfully without a right and with a manifest sin The Ayah commands: When one of you wants to divorce a wife and marry another one, he must not take any portion of the dowry he gave to the first wife, even if it were a Qintar of money.
This Ayah is clear in its indication that the dowry could be substantial. The Messenger of Allah never gave any of his wives, nor did any of his daughters receive a dowry more than twelve Uwqiyah. A man used to pay a substantial dowry and thus conceal enmity towards his wife! Why do you exaggerate concerning the dowry given to women The Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to pay up to four hundred Dirhams for a dowry, or less than that. Had paying more for a dowry been a part of Taqwa or an honor, you would not have led them in this practice. Therefore, I do not want to hear about a man who pays more than four hundred Dirhams for a dowry. So, let everyone pay what he likes from his money.
The Messenger said,. You have no money. If you are the one who said the truth, the dowry is in return for the right to have sexual intercourse with her. If you are the one who uttered the lie, then this money is even farther from your reach. Similarly Allah said;. Marrying the Wife of the Father is Prohibited. And marry not women whom your fathers married, Allah prohibits marrying the women whom the father married, in honor and respect to the fathers, not allowing their children to have sexual relations with their wives after they die.
A woman becomes ineligible for the son of her husband as soon as the marriage contract is conducted, and there is a consensus on this ruling. Allah sent down,. Therefore, the practice that the Ayah mentions is prohibited for this Ummah, being disgraced as an awful sin, r. And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is a Fahishah and an evil way. It is a sin itself and causes the son to hate his father after he marries his wife. It is usual that whoever marries a woman dislikes those who married her before him. This is one reason why the Mothers of the Faithful were not allowed for anyone in marriage after the Messenger.
They are indeed the Mothers of the Faithful since they married the Messenger , who is like the father to the believers. Therefore, those who commit this practice will have committed an act of reversion from the religion and deserve capital punishment and confiscation of their property, which will be given to the Muslim Treasury. This honorable Ayah is the Ayah that establishes the degrees of women relatives who are never eligible for one to marry, because of blood relations, relations established by suckling or marriage.
Your foster mothers who suckled you, your foster milk suckling sisters means, just as your mother who bore you is prohibited for you in marriage, so is your mother from suckling prohibited for you. Less than five incidents of suckling will not establish prohibition for marriage. If the man divorces the mother before having sexual relations with her, he is allowed to marry her daughter.
Your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in — but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them, to marry the stepdaughter. Therefore, do not offer me to marry your daughters or sisters. Had I not married Umm Salamah, her daughter would not have been allowed for me anyway. Consequently, the Messenger stated that his marriage to Umm Salamah was the real reason behind that prohibition. Prohibiting the Daughter-in-Law for Marriage. The wives of your sons who spring from your own loins, Therefore, you are prohibited to marry the wives of your own sons, but not the wives of your adopted sons, as adoption was common practice in Jahiliyyah.
So when Zayd had accomplished his desire from her i. Allah sent down the Ayat:. It means that these two Ayat encompass these types of women, whether the marriage was consummated or not, and there is a consensus on this ruling. Therefore, no one is allowed to take or keep two sisters as rival wives, according to the consensus of the scholars of the Companions, their followers, and the Imams of old and present.
They all stated that taking two sisters as rival wives is prohibited, and that whoever embraces Islam while married to two sisters at the same time is given the choice to keep one of them and divorce the other. Also forbidden are women already married, except those slaves whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them with a dowry from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication.
So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually to give more after the requirement has been determined , there is no sin on you. Also forbidden are women already married, except those whom your right hands possess. The Ayah means, you are prohibited from marrying women who are already married,. So, we asked the Prophet about this matter, and this Ayah was revealed, e. Consequently, we had sexual relations with these women. Thus has Allah ordained for you means, this prohibition was ordained for you by Allah. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, means, to enjoy them sexually, surrender to them their rightful dowry as compensation.
In other Ayat, Allah said,. And it is not lawful for you men to take back from your wives any of what dowry you gave them. O people! Now, Allah has prohibited it until the Day of Resurrection. And give to the women their dowry with a good heart. The meaning of these Ayat is: If you have stipulated a dowry for her, and she later forfeits it, either totally or partially, then this bears no harm on you or her in this case.
Therefore, Allah said that there is no harm on you, O people, concerning your mutual agreement after the requirement has been determined. And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess, and Allah has full knowledge about your faith, you are one from another. Wed them with the permission of their own folk guardians and give them their due in a good manner; they should be chaste, not fornicators, nor promiscuous. And after they have been taken in wedlock, if they commit Fahishah, their punishment is half that for free unmarried women.
This is for him among you who is afraid of being harmed in his religion or in his body; but it is better for you that you practice self-restraint, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. They may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess, meaning, they are allowed to wed believing slave girls owned by the believers. Allah knows the true reality and secrets of all things, but you people know only the apparent things. Wed them with the permission of their own folk indicating that the owner is responsible for the slave girl, and consequently, she cannot marry without his permission.
The owner is also responsible for his male slave and they cannot wed without his permission. A Hadith states,. Any male slave who marries without permission from his master, is a fornicator. When the owner of the female slave is a female, those who are allowed to give away the free woman in marriage, with her permission, become responsible for giving away her female slave in marriage, as well. A Hadith states that. The woman does not give away another woman, or herself in marriage, for only the adulteress gives herself away in marriage. And give them their due in a good manner; meaning, pay them their dowry with a good heart, and do not keep any of it, belittling the matter due to the fact that they are owned slaves.
And after they have been taken in wedlock, if they commit Fahishah, their punishment is half of that for free unmarried women. And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess, Therefore, since the honorable Ayah is about believing slave girls, then,. This is for him among you who is afraid of being harmed in his religion or in his body; indicates that marrying slave girls, providing one satisfies the required conditions, is for those who fear for their chastity and find it hard to be patient and refrain from sex.
In this difficult circumstance, one is allowed to marry a slave girl. Allah wishes to make clear what is lawful and what is unlawful to you, and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your repentance, and Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise. Allah wishes to accept your repentance, but those who follow their lusts, wish that you believers should deviate tremendously away from the right path Allah wishes to lighten the burden for you; and man was created weak. Allah explains to the believers what He has allowed and prohibited for them in this and other Surahs,.
And to show you the ways of those before you, meaning their righteous ways and how to adhere to the commandments that He likes and is pleased with. This is why Allah has allowed free men to marry slave girls under certain conditions, as Mujahid and others have stated. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Tawus said that,. Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves nor kill one another. Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allah.
If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your small sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance i. Prohibiting Unlawfully Earned Money. Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly. There is no restriction on the blind until the end of the Ayah. However, there is no harm in commercial transactions that transpire between the buyer and the seller with mutual consent, so that money is legally earned from these transactions.
Mujahid said that,. Mutual agreement in various transactions is attained when both parties have the right to uphold or dissolve the agreement before they part. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,. The seller and the buyer retain the right to change their mind as long as they have not parted. When two men conduct a transaction, they retain their right to change their mind as long as they have not parted. And do not kill yourselves. So I performed Tayammum with pure earth and led my company in the Dawn prayer. When I went back to the Messenger of Allah , I mentioned what had happened to me and he said,.
So I performed Tayammum and prayed. Ibn Marduwyah mentioned this honorable Ayah and then reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,. Whoever kills himself with an iron tool, then his tool will be in his hand and he will keep stabbing himself with it in the Fire of Jahannam, forever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, then his poison will be in his hand and he will keep taking it in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever. Whoever kills himself by throwing himself from a mountain, will keep falling in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever. This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs. Whoever kills himself with an instrument, will be punished with it on the Day of Resurrection.
This Hadith was collected by the Group. This is why Allah said,. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, meaning, whoever commits what Allah has forbidden for him transgression and injustice — while knowing that it is forbidden for him, yet he still dares to commit it,. We shall cast him into the Fire,. This Ayah carries a stern warning and a truthful promise. Therefore, every sane person should beware of it, those who hear the speech with full comprehension. If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your small sins, meaning, if you avoid the major evil deeds that you were prohibited We will forgive you the minor evil deeds and will admit you into Paradise. There are several Hadiths on the subject of this honorable Ayah.
Anyone who takes a bath and cleans himself as much as he can and then proceeds for the Friday prayer and remains quiet until the Imam finishes the prayer, all his sins in between the present and the next Friday will be forgiven, as long as major sins were avoided. Associating others with Allah in worship, killing the life, and being undutiful to the parents.
He then said,. Should I tell you about the biggest of the major sins The false statement — or the false testimony. He was reclining, then he sat up and said;. And I warn you against false testimony and false speech. To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you. Except those who repent. Among the worst of the major sins is for a man to curse his own parents. This is the wording of Muslim. And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. For men there is reward for what they have earned, and likewise for women there is reward for what they have earned, and ask Allah of His bounty. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything. Men go to battle, but we do not go to battle, and we earn one-half of the inheritance that men get.
At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith. For men there is reward for what they have earned, and likewise for women there is reward for what they have earned, indicates, according to Ibn Jarir, that each person will earn his wages for his works, a reward if his deeds are good, and punishment if his deeds are evil. Allah then directed the servants to what benefits them,. He also knows who deserves the Hereafter, and He directs him to perform the deeds that will help him to be sucessful in it, and whoever deserves failure, He prevents him from achieving righteousness and what leads to it.
Hence, Allah said, m. And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali of that left by parents and relatives. To those also with whom you have made a pledge brotherhood , give them their due portion by wills. Truly, Allah is Ever a Witness over all things. To those also with whom you have made a pledge brotherhood , give them their due portion. Allah has witnessed all of you when you gave these pledges and promises. When the verse,. And to everyone We have appointed Mawali was revealed, it cancelled the pledge of brotherhood regarding inheritance. Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend to support them from their means.
As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct, admonish them, and abandon them in their beds, and beat them, but if they return to obedience, do not seek a means against them. Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, meaning, the man is responsible for the woman, and he is her maintainer, caretaker and leader who disciplines her if she deviates. This is why prophethood was exclusive of men, as well as other important positions of leadership. The Prophet said,. People who appoint a woman to be their leader, will never achieve success. Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. Such is the case with appointing women as judges or on other positions of leadership. For these reasons it is suitable that he is appointed her maintainer, just as Allah said,.
The best women is she who when you look at her, she pleases you, when you command her she obeys you, and when you are absent, she protects her honor and your property. Then, the Messenger of Allah recited the Ayah,. Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, until its end. As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct, meaning, the woman from whom you see ill conduct with her husband, such as when she acts as if she is above her husband, disobeys him, ignores him, dislikes him, and so forth. Indeed, Allah ordered the wife to obey her husband and prohibited her from disobeying him, because of the enormity of his rights and all that he does for her.
If I were to command anyone to prostrate before anyone, I would have commanded the wife to prostrate before her husband, because of the enormity of his right upon her. If the man asks his wife to come to his bed and she declines, the angels will keep cursing her until the morning. Muslim recorded it with the wording,. To feed her when you eat, cloth her when you buy clothes for yourself, refrain from striking her face or cursing her, and to not abandon her, except in the house. Muslim recorded that Jabir said that during the Farewell Hajj, the Prophet said;.
Fear Allah regarding women, for they are your assistants. You have the right on them that they do not allow any person whom you dislike to step on your mat. However, if they do that, you are allowed to discipline them lightly. They have a right on you that you provide them with their provision and clothes, in a reasonable manner. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it means, a beating that is not severe. Therefore, in this case, the husband does not have the right to beat her or shun her bed. Allah first mentioned the case of rebellion on the part of the wife. He then mentioned the case of estrangement and alienation between the two spouses. If you fear a breach between the two, appoint two arbitrators, one from his family.
Allah gives preference to staying together, and this is why Allah said,. If the man is in the wrong, they prevent him from his wife, and he pays some restitution. If the wife is in the wrong, she remains with her husband, and he does not pay any restitution. If the arbitrators decide that the marriage should remain intact or be dissolved, then their decision is upheld. If they decide that the marriage remains intact, but one of the spouses disagrees while the other agrees, and one of them dies, then the one who agreed inherits from the other, while the spouse who did not agree does not inherit from the spouse who agreed. They also agree that the decision of the arbitrators is binding, even if the two spouses did not appoint them as agents.
This is the case if it is decided that they should stay together, but they disagree whether it is binding or not when they decide for separation. Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer you meet , and those slaves whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful. Allah orders that He be worshipped Alone without partners, because He Alone is the Creator and Sustainer Who sends His favors and bounties on His creation in all situations and instances.
Therefore He deserves to be singled out, without associating anything or anyone from His creation with Him in worship. That they should worship Him and should not worship any others with Him. The Prophet then said,. Do you know what the right of the servants on Allah is if they do this He should not punish them. Allah then commands the servants to be dutiful to their parents, for Allah made parents the reason for the servants to come to existence, after they did not exist. Allah joins the order to worship Him with being dutiful to parents in many places. For example, He said,. And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. After Allah ordained being dutiful to parents, He ordained kind treatment of relatives, males and females.
Charity given to the poor is Sadaqah, while charity given to relatives is both Sadaqah and Silah keeping the relations. So Allah commands that the orphans be treated with kindness and compassion. Al-Masakin the poor who have various needs and cannot find what sustains these needs. Therefore, Allah commands they should be helped in acquiring their needs in a sufficient manner that will end their inadequacy. The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. The best companions according to Allah are those who are the best with their friends, and the best neighbors according to Allah are the best with their neighbors.
So it is forbidden until the Day of Resurrection. If a man steals from his neighbor, it is worse for him than stealing from ten homes. Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. The neighbor whose door is the closest to you. Being Kind to Slaves and Servants. An authentic Hadith records that during the illness that preceded his death, the Messenger of Allah continued advising his Ummah:. Protect the prayer, protect the prayer, and those slaves whom your hands possess. He was repeating it until his tongue was still. What you feed yourself is a Sadaqah charity for you, what you feed your children is Sadaqah for you, what you feed your wife is Sadaqah for you and what you feed your servant is Sadaqah for you. It is enough sin for someone to prevent whomever he is responsible for from getting their food.
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,. The slave has the right to have food, clothing and to only be required to perform what he can bear of work. Muslim also recorded this Hadith. When your servant brings meals to one of you, if he does not let him sit and share the meal, then he should at least give him a mouthful or two mouthfuls of that meal or a meal or two, for he has prepared it. This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari. Allah Does Not Like the Arrogant. He thinks that he is better than other people, thus thinking high of himself, even though he is insignificant to Allah and hated by people. This Ayah indicates that such a person boasts with people about the bounty that Allah has given him, but he is actually ungrateful to Allah for this bounty.
He then recited,. And dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, deprived. Avoid lengthening the dress below the ankles , for this practice is from arrogance. Verily, Allah does not like arrogance. Those who are stingy and encourage people to be stingy and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment. And also those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, and believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!
And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenamce And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them. Allah chastises the stingy behavior of those who refuse to spend their money for what Allah ordered them, such as being kind to parents and compassionate to relatives, orphans, the poor, the relative who is also a neighbor, the companion during travel, the needy wayfarer, the slaves and servants.
Beware of being stingy, for it destroyed those who were before you, as it encouraged them to cut their relations and they did, and it encouraged them to commit sin and they did. Similarly, Allah said,. Verily, man is ungrateful to his Lord. And to that he bears witness. Kufr means to cover something. Therefore, the Bakhil miser covers the favors that Allah has blessed him with, meaning he does not spread those favors. So he is described by the term Kafir ungrateful regarding the favors that Allah granted him. A Hadith states that,. When Allah grants a servant a favor, He likes that its effect appears on him. The apparent wording for this Ayah indicates that it is talking about being stingy with money, even though miserly conduct with knowledge is also included.
The Ayah talks about spending on relatives and the weak, just as the Ayah after it,. And also those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, Allah first mentions the punished misers who do not spend, then He mentions those who spend to show off to gain the reputation that they are generous, not for the Face of Allah. A Hadith states that the first three persons on whom the fire will feed are a scholar, a fighter and a spender who shows off with their actions.
For instance,. Shaytan encouraged, excited and lured them by making the evil appear good,. And whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has! And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenance This Ayah means, what harm would it cause them if they believe in Allah, go on the righteous path, replace showing off with sincerity, have faith in Allah, and await His promise in the Hereafter, for those who do good and spend what He has given them on what He likes and is pleased with. And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them. Indeed, Allah knows those who deserve success, and He grants them success and guidance, directing them to perform righteous actions that will earn them His pleasure.
He also knows those who deserve failure and expulsion from His great mercy, which amounts to utter failure in this life and the Hereafter for them, we seek refuge in Allah from this evil end. Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good done , He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward. How will it be then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you O Muhammad as a witness against these people On that day those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish that they were buried in the earth, but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.
Allah states that He does not treat any of His servants with injustice on the Day of Resurrection, be it the weight of a mustard seed or a speck of dust. Rather, Allah shall reward them for this action and multiply it, if it were a good deed. For instance, Allah said,. O my son! If it be anything equal to the weight of a mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds.
So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. Will Punishment be Diminished for the Disbelievers. He is in a shallow area in Hell-fire, and were it not for me, he would have been in the deepest depths of the Fire. However, this Hadith only applies to Abu Talib, not the rest of the disbelievers. Allah does not wrong the faithful even concerning one good action, for he will be rewarded for it by provision in this life and awarded for it in the Hereafter.
As for the disbeliever, he will be provided provision in this life for his good action, and on the Day of Resurrection, he will not have any good deed. We ask Allah for His pleasure and Paradise. One year, he went to Hajj before me, and I found the people of Al-Basrah saying that he narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,. Allah rewards the good deed with a million deeds. I heard my brethren in Al-Basrah claim that you narrated that you heard the Messenger of Allah saying,. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,. How will it be then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you O Muhammad as a witness against these people Allah describes the horrors, hardships and difficulties of the Day of Resurrection, saying, how would it be on that Day when there will be a witness from every nation, meaning the Prophets, just as Allah said;.
And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, and the Book will be placed open ; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward , and,. And remember the Day when We shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves. They have indeed hid something. They will say,. However, Allah will then seal their mouths, and their hands and feet will disclose what they used to do. Allah forbade His believing servants from praying while drunk, for one does not know the meaning of what he is saying in that state, and He forbade them from attending the Masjids while sexually impure, except when one is just passing through the Masjid from one door to another.
They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling. Explain the ruling about Khamr intoxicants for us in a plain manner. So avoid that in order that you may be successful. A man from the Ansar once made some food and invited some Muhajirin and Ansar men to it, and we ate and drank until we became intoxicated. We then boasted about our status. This occurred before Al-Khamr was prohibited, and Allah later revealed,. Approach not AsSalat the prayer when you are in a drunken state. Muslim recorded this Hadith, and the collectors of the Sunan recorded it, with the exception of Ibn Majah.
When we became intoxicated, and the time for prayer came, they asked someone to lead us in prayer. Do not approach Salah when you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying. When a person is drunk, he makes obvious mistakes in the recitation and will not be able to be humble during the prayer. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,. If one feels sleepy while he is praying, let him sleep for a while so that he knows the meaning of what he is saying.
In some of the narrations of this Hadith, the Messenger said,. So, Allah sent down,. Close all the small doors in this Masjid, except that of Abu Bakr. This is what the Prophet commanded at the end of his life, knowing that Abu Bakr will be the Khalifah after him, and that he would need to enter the Masjid on numerous occasions to manage the important affairs of the Muslims. Your period is not in your hand. Muslim also collected a similar narration from Abu Hurayrah. This Hadith indicates that the woman is allowed to pass through the Masjid during menses or post-natal bleeding, and Allah knows best.
As for the type of illness which would allow Tayammum, it is an illness that one fears would be aggravated by using water, which could be detrimental to a part of the body, or when doing so would prolong an illness. Some scholars said that any type of illness warrants Tayammum, because of the general indications of the Ayah. As for travelling on a journey, it is known, regardless of its length. For instance, Allah said in another Ayah,. I am Junub and there is no water. We were given preference over people in three things. Our lines in prayer were arranged in rows to resemble the rows of the angels, all of the earth was made a Masjid for us, and its dust was made clean for us when there is no water. The Messenger mentioned the favor of making dust a purifyer for us, and if there were any other substance to replace it for Tayammum, he would have mentioned it.
Clean earth is pure for the Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years. When he finds water, let him use it for his skin, for this is better. Therefore, it is sufficient in Tayammum to just wipe the face and hands, as the consensus concurs. You and I were on a military expedition when we became Junub and did not find water. You did not pray, but I rolled myself in the sand and then prayed. When we went back to the Prophet, we mentioned to him what had happened. He said to me, S.
This would have been sufficient for you , and the Prophet stroked his hand on the earth once, blew into it and wiped his face and hands. The earth has been made for me and for my followers a place for praying and an object to perform purification with.Ulrike Demmer 26 March What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided can also go to any What Happened In My Lai: A Nation Divided to play if I want. But Allah bears witness to that which He has revealed to Violas Disguise In Twelfth Night.