⚡ How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture
Puritan Life In The Early 1600s was to Kazakhstan that Joseph Stalin exiled Amish Research Paper of Arthur Goodhart Ratio Decidendi Analysis How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture some of his most brutal gulags. I really proud if my motherland. Finally water is not scarce. Women are Figurative Language In The Masque Of The Red Death the best students in a school and more qualified than men for many of the jobs in Kazakhstan. Stability Finally, environmental stability can be a factor in development. Great Britain: How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture. It strengthened capitalism and gave it a global character. How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture of the How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture, 25 October, was the day independence was declared. Inshe won the Pulitzer Prize in How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture for her fashion coverage.
The story of the Silk Road
Kazakh carpets and handicrafts are probably some of the most famous exports from Kazakhstan. In addition, mineral and oil exports bring in much-needed revenue. Major Industries. The major industries of Kazakhstan are oil, coal, ore, lead, zinc, gold, silver, metals, construction materials, and small motors. Kazakhstan produces 40 percent of the world's chrome ore, second only to South Africa. Besides the major fossil fuels and important minerals extraction, which is being supported by both foreign investment and the Kazakh government, much of the major industrial production in Kazakhstan has slowed or stopped.
An industrial growth rate of Kazakhstan trades oil, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, chemicals, grains, wool, meat, and coal on the international market mostly with Russia, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, the Netherlands, China, Italy, and Germany. For the years between , 28 percent of working males were active in agriculture; 37 percent in industry; and 35 percent in services. During that same time period, 15 percent of working women were engaged in agriculture; 25 percent in industry; and 60 percent in services. Division of Labor. Liberal arts colleges have only existed in Kazakhstan since independence in Until that time all institutes of higher education trained workers for a specific skill and to fill a specific role in the economy.
This is still very much the case with high school seniors deciding among careers such as banking, engineering, computer science, or teaching. A system of education, qualifications, work experience, and job performance is for the most part in place once a graduate enters the workforce. In recent years there have been widespread complaints of nepotism and other unfair hiring and promotion practices, often involving positions of importance.
This has lead to cynicism and pessimism regarding fairness in the job market. Class and Castes. Some would argue that there is no bigger problem in Kazakhstan than rising social stratification at all levels. Kazakh capitalism has been a free-for-all, with a few people grabbing almost all of the power regardless of who suffers. The terms "New Kazakh" or "New Russian" have been used to describe the nouveau riche in Kazakhstan, who often flaunt their wealth. This is in contrast to the vast number of unemployed or underpaid. A culture of haves and have-nots is dangerous for a country composed of many different ethnic groups used to having basic needs met regardless of who they were or where they came from.
Poverty and accusations of unfair treatment have raised the stakes in tensions between Kazakhs and non-Kazakhs, whose interactions until recently have been peaceful. Symbols of Social Stratification. The symbols of stratification in Kazakhstan are much like they are in many developing countries. The rich drive expensive cars, dress in fashionable clothes, and throw lavish parties. The poor drive old Soviet cars or take a bus, wear cheap clothes imported from China or Turkey, and save for months just to afford a birthday party or a wedding. American legal and constitutional experts helped the Kazakhstani government write their constitution and form their government in The system is a strong presidential one, with the president having the power to dissolve the parliament if his prime minister is rejected twice or if there is a vote of no confidence.
The president also is the only person who can suggest constitutional amendments and make political appointments. There are some forms of checks and balances provided by a bicameral legislature called the Kenges. The Majlis, or lower house, has sixty-seven deputies In villages, women are responsible for the domestic chores. The powers of the legislature are severely limited; most glaringly, they don't even have the power to initiate legislation. The legal system is based on the civil law system. There is a Supreme Court of forty-four members and a Constitutional Court of seven members. While much of the control is centered in Astana with the president, legislature, and courts, there are fourteen provinces or states, called oblasts in Russian, with governors and certain rights.
Leadership and Political Officials. After independence, Nazarbayev was easily elected president in November In March he dissolved parliament, saying that the parliamentary elections were invalid. A March referendum extended the president's term until , solidifying Nazarbayev's control and raising serious doubts among Kazakhstani people and international observers as to the state of Kazakhstani democracy. Multiparty, representative democracy has tried to take hold in Kazakhstan but has been met by opposition from Nazarbayev's government.
A number of smaller parties have formed and disbanded over the years. The opposition parties have accused Nazarbayev and his Republican Party of limiting any real power of the opposition by putting obstacles and loopholes in their way, if not actually rigging the elections. The most notable example of suppression of political opposition has been the case of Akezhan Kazhageldin, who was Nazarbayev's prime minister from to In Kazhageldin was banned from running in the presidential elections. He and his wife were charged with tax evasion the conviction of a crime under the Kazakhstani constitution prevents a potential candidate from running for office and arrested in September at the Moscow airport after arriving from London.
The end result was that he was still not registered for the October election, and Nazarbayev won easily, with more than 80 percent of the vote. Social Problems and Control. In urban areas, robberies and theft are common. Murder, suicide, and other violent crimes are on the rise. The system for dealing with crime in Kazakhstan is based, in theory, on a rule of law and enforced by the police and the courts. Local and state police and local and national courts are set up much as they are in the United States and much of the rest of the Western world.
The problem is the lack of checks and controls on this system. There are so many police and so many different units remnants of the Soviet apparatus still exist, such as intelligence gatherers, visa and registration officers, and corruption and anitgovernmental affairs divisions, as well regular police and border controls that it is often that jurisdiction is unclear. The strong sense of community, with neighbors looking out for each other, acts as a deterrent against crime.
Civic education and responsible citizenry is emphasized in schools, and the schools work closely with local communities in this area. The drug trade from Afghanistan and long, hard-to-patrol borders have given rise to organized crime, putting a strain on Kazakhstan's police and border patrol. White-collar crime, such as embezzlement, tax fraud, and abuse of power and privilege are almost daily events, which seem to be tacitly accepted. Military Activity. The military of the Soviet Union was very strong and well-trained.
The armies of the post-Soviet republics are much weaker and less supported by the government. The available Kazakhstani military manpower of males between ages fifteen and forty-nine was estimated at 4. All males over age eighteen must serve in the military for two years. Exemptions are made for those in school and the disabled. Kazakhstan is in a semiprecarious location. It has a friendly, although weakened, neighbor to the north in Russia.
Recent complaints by Russians in Kazakhstan have begun to resonate in Moscow, putting some strain on relations that are for the most part friendly. Kazakhstan has a historical fear of China and thus watches its border with that country closely, but the most unstable areas for Kazakhstan involve its neighbors to the south. Movements in Afghanistan have spread to the failed state of Tajikistan, forming a center of Islamic fundamentalism not far to Kazakhstan's south. Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have already dealt with attacks from rebel groups in Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan has significantly increased its military presence on its borders with Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. The region does not seem to be one that will readily go to war, while memories of the war in Afghanistan in the late s are fresh in most people's minds.
There is a government-sponsored program of pension and disability benefits. There is also support for single mothers with multiple children. The problem is that there is very little money for these programs. Pension levels have not kept up with inflation, and pensions are rarely paid on time, with those elderly, disabled, or unemployed often going months without payment. Kazakhstan and the rest of the former Soviet Union have seen a massive infusion of nongovernmental organizations NGOs and international aid programs.
The Peace Corps, United Nations Volunteers, and many other aid and educational organizations have been working hard in Kazakhstan. The groups are well received by the people and, for the most part, allowed to do their work by the Kazakhstani government. Division of Labor by Gender. There is a large distinction between work and the home in Kazakhstani society. Women occupy very important roles in the Kazakhstani workforce. Women are, for example, school principals, bank presidents, teachers, accountants, police officers, secretaries, and government workers and make up almost half of the workforce.
This may be a carryover from Soviet times when women were very important parts of a system that depended on every citizen to work and contribute. Women are often the best students in a school and more qualified than men for many of the jobs in Kazakhstan. However, often women have not been promoted to the top positions in national government and the private sector. With alcoholism on the rise, especially among men, and educational performance among men often lower than average, women may play an even more significant role in the future Kazakhstani economy.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. Kazakh culture is traditionally a patriarchal one, with much respect being given to men, especially elderly men. Symbols in the culture often represent power and warriorlike behavior, often associated with men. This can be seen in many Kazakh households. In villages and small towns women always prepare the food, pour the tea, and clean the dishes. Men will often lounge on large pillows or stand outside and smoke while women prepare food or clean up after a meal. Men do work around the house, but it is usually with the horses, garden, or car. There are many marriage and courtship customs that further assert the male as dominant in Kazakh society. Marriage in Kazakhstan is similar to that in the United States and Europe.
The reasons and even the process of marriage in Kazakhstan are also very similar. While years ago it was common for women to marry very young, times have changed; education has become much more important for both genders, and marriages for people in their mid-twenties are becoming more common. Marriages are not arranged by the parents but are usually formed through dating and courtship. Interracial marriage is rare but tolerated. Three aspects of traditional Kazakh culture still occasionally affect marriage today in Kazakhstan. Marriage is forbidden to any couple related over the past seven generations. In addition, the male should be older than the female. Finally, the nomadic tradition of stealing a bride is still practiced, although rarely, by some Kazakhs.
Families of the bride and groom are usually heavily involved in the process of the wedding and subsequent marriage. The families meet before the wedding, and exchange gifts and dowries. Kazakh weddings are three-day events. Divorce is not uncommon, especially in the urban centers. It is viewed in Kazakhstan as it is in other parts of the world—it is never ideal but some marriages were not meant to last. There are no formal rules for who gets what when a marriage ends, but women usually keep the children.
Domestic Unit. Households vary greatly in Kazakhstan. Some couples have only one or two children, while other families have eight or nine. Kazakhs tend to have more children than Russians. Men exercise most of the symbolic authority in both Kazakh and non-Kazakh households. But there are many very strong women and powerful matriarchs who wield all practical control. Domestic units in Kazakhstan are very rarely just a mother, father, and their children. The practice of grandparents and extended family living Oil refineries next to train tracks near Kul'Sary, Kazakhstan.
Oil is one of the major industries in Kazakhstan. Kazakhs especially make very little distinctions among cousins, second cousins, aunts, uncles, and grandparents. Kazakhs also still largely adhere to an old custom of care for the elderly. The youngest son in Kazakh families is expected to stay at home until his parents die. He may take a wife and have a family of his own, but he is expected to care for his parents into their old age. Kin Groups. Kin groups are central to the life of almost every Kazakh life. Who you are, who your family is, and where you are from are very important. Dating back hundreds of years to the times when the Kazakhs were divided into three distinct hordes or large tribes, it has been important to know about your kin groups.
Extended families are large support networks, and relatives from far away can be expected to help financially in times of crisis. Infant Care. Childbirth in Kazakhstan occurs in a hospital under the care of a doctor whenever possible. Every district in the country has a hospital, and medical care is free; patients only pay for drugs and specialized tests and care. Mothers usually stay in the hospital with their infants for a few days after birth. Some Kazakhs practice a custom of not letting anyone besides close family members see a newborn for the first forty days of life; then the family holds a small party and presents the baby to extended family and friends.
Babies are well cared for and cherished by all cultures in Kazakhstan. Independence and access to markets have brought improved access to infant care products. Child Rearing and Education. Generally children go to kindergarten at ages four or five in Kazakhstan. First grade and formal schooling start at age six, when many Kazakhs have large parties celebrating the event. Children in Kazakhstan are assigned to classes of about twenty-five students in the first grade; the class remains together through the eleventh grade.
The class has the same teacher from the first through the fourth grade and then a different teacher from the fifth through the eleventh grade. These teachers become like second mothers or fathers to the students in that class, with discipline being an important factor. Homework is extensive and grades difficult, and students are very grade-conscious. Kazakhstani schools stress the basics: literature, math, geography, history, grammar, and foreign languages.
Workdays are held where students clean the school and the town. Classes on citizenship and army training are required. After school, arts and dance performances are very popular. Higher Education. Many high school students—often as high as 75 percent—go on to attend some form of schooling after graduation. Liberal arts schools, many run by foreigners, are opening in the bigger cities. Technical schools and state universities are widespread and very popular. A tendency still exists to pigeonhole students by making them choose a profession before they enter school—a Soviet remnant that preached that every citizen had a specific role in society and the sooner he or she realized it and learned the trade the better.
Unfortunately this practice is less flexible in the ever-changing Kazakhstani economy, leaving many young people underqualified for many of the emerging jobs. Etiquette and cultural norms related to acceptable and unacceptable behavior vary between urban and rural Kazakhs. As a rule, rural Kazakhs tend to follow the cultural norms more strictly. Kazakh men always shake hands with someone they know when they see each other for the first time in a day. Usually the younger man initiates this, and shows respect by extending both hands and shaking the older man's hand.
Both Kazakhs and non-Kazakhs remove their shoes when inside a house. Guests always remove their shoes at the door and often put on a pair of slippers provided by the host or hostess. Central Asian streets often can be very dusty or muddy, so wearing shoes indoors is a serious social offense. Greetings are also very structured in Kazakhstan.
In Kazakh culture, elder women and men are greeted with certain phrases showing respect. A Russian system of patronymics is still widely used. Kazakhs can be superstitious, and whistling inside a house is unacceptable in almost all Kazakh homes. It is believed that whistling inside will make the owner of the house poor. In general smoking by women is not accepted, especially in rural areas, and women who are seen walking and smoking at the same time are considered prostitutes.
Kazakhs, and many other people from the former Soviet Union, often don't smile at people in public except to those they know. Kazakhs rarely form lines when boarding crowded buses. Many people in Kazakhstan treat foreigners with a visible degree of skepticism. With the work of the Peace Corps and many other international groups and companies, the image of a foreigner as a spy is starting to fade.
Nevertheless Kazakhstani people will often stare at foreigners as they walk by. Public affection between friends is very common. Women and girls often hold hands as they walk; boys wrestle and often hook arms or walk with their arms around each other. Kissing cheeks and embracing is perfectly acceptable between good friends. Religious Beliefs. Religion in Kazakhstan is in a time of change. Arabs brought Islam to the region in the ninth century, and more than a thousand years later, Russian Orthodoxy was introduced by Russian settlers from the north. For all intents and purposes no religion was practiced for the seventy years of Soviet influence over the region; religious participation was banned, and many churches and mosques were destroyed—religious traditions were lost in the name of Soviet atheism.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, 47 percent of the people profess to be Muslim mainly Sunni branch and 44 percent Russian Orthodox. However, few people practice religion in any formal way, but Kazakhs have incorporated religion into some parts of their everyday life; for example, they cover their faces in a short prayer when they pass graveyards where someone they know is buried, and they often say prayers after meals. Sayings such as "God willing" and "this is from God" are very common in everyday speech. There are virtually no visible tensions between Muslims and Christians in Kazakhstan. Religion was such a nonfactor for so many years, and continues to occupy so little of everyday life, that it is simply not an issue of importance between Russians and Kazakhs.
Religious Practitioners. Most town mosques are cared for and staffed by a mullah, who conducts religious services at the mosque as well as funerals, weddings, and blessings. Russian Orthodox churches are in many parts of Kazakhstan, especially in the north and in large cities. Orthodox priests perform services and baptize children much as in the West. Death and the Afterlife. Both Kazakhs and non-Kazakhs believe that the deceased go to a heaven after they die. Funerals and burials reflect this, as A farm on the steppe grasslands near Kul'Sary, Kazakhstan.
Many rural Kazakhs acquire the food they eat from their own land. Funerals in this part of the world are very intense, with wailing being a sign of respect and love for the dead. Funerals are usually held in the home of the deceased with people coming from afar to pay their respects. Russians and Kazakhs are usually buried in separate sections of the graveyard. If the means are available, a Kazakh can be buried in a mausoleum. There are some hospitals in Kazakhstan where it is possible to get good health care, but many more are in poor repair, without heat or electricity, lacking basic drugs and medical supplies, and staffed by underqualified and severely underpaid doctors and nurses.
Doctors are still trained under the Soviet system of specialties, with very few general practitioners. Doctors also rely heavily on symptomatic diagnosis, as they do not have access to the latest machines and testing devices; often simple blood tests cannot be done. Nevertheless, doctors are trusted and respected. People also rely heavily on home remedies such as hot teas, honey, vodka and Banya a very hot version of a sauna used mainly for cleaning purposes, but also for sweating out diseases and impurities.
Some of the principal secular celebrations are 8 March, Women's Day, a very important day in Kazakhstan and celebrated by all. Women are honored on this day and showered with flowers and entertained with skits and jokes by their male coworkers and family members. It occurs on summer solstice. Kazakhs cook traditional foods, have horse races, and set up many yurts.
Day of the Republic, 25 October, was the day independence was declared. This day is a day of Kazakh nationalism, with many speeches, songs, and performances in Kazakh. Independence Day is celebrated on 16 December—this date was chosen to remember the riots in Almaty on 16 December The riots were the first display of Kazakh nationalism and solidarity. Independence day is celebrated much like the Day of the Republic. Support for the Arts. Under the Soviet Union, funding and support of the arts were available for those who enrolled in specialized schools for artists, dancers, and musicians.
However today, government money for arts, besides what is provided through public schools and municipals houses of culture, has virtually dried up. Students study both Kazakh and Russian literature. A high societal value is put on those who have read the famous works and can quote and discuss them. Performance Arts. Despite funding cutbacks, plays, dance performances, art museums, and the upkeep of historical museums are very important to the people of Kazakhstan.
There are beautiful theaters in the larger cities, and almost every town has a house of culture where plays, art classes, concerts, and dance performances can take place. Many cultures in Kazakhstan have a strong tradition of instrument playing, traditional dancing, and theatrical performances. The Soviet Union had, and its now independent republics have, some very well respected science universities in the world. Higher education is very specialized in Kazakhstan, with many universities or programs focusing on specialized fields of physics, technology, engineering, math, philosophy, and politics.
Many famous academics have come from this part of the world, and education in these fields has remained important, although funding for them has slowed with the economic downturn in the region. It is also very costly to maintain the grid as well as it not producing as much energy as you would think from solar. I guess the main problem would be transporting that power to somewhere where it could be sold.
That could be the next step in re-engineering electrical currents. Some kind of a pipeline, a battery transfer of sorts. It would probably end up with a migration of people closer to the power grid freeing up Africa from population congestion in fertile areas. While a lack of freshwater is clearly a problem for a society it is nevertheless one problem that has notably been overcome by many places.
For example, what you said about America particular is not completely true. If you want desert, etc. Think Mesopotamia, Ur, Babylon and even Rome. They built elaborate systems to transport water and grew inspite of the problem…. These are all very good ideas. How is the econommy going to be stimulated by this ,when the average lifespan in central Africa is 35 and the average income is a few hundred dollars a month? Also, what about the huge issue the Africans are facing with Malaria? Hi Steve, these are good points, although even Las Vegas grew where it did in the desert because there were natural artesian wells there. Dubai is a modern example of pretty much the same thing, but all of these depend on the money coming in from the outside.
They are what they are today because of thier mindsets. What are the geographical factors that can affect the success of tourism, resort attraction,infrastructure and tourist flow? Can you please sent me the information plz. Geography has a huge impact on human developement. Climate, resources, and location are needed in order for human development. The climate of an area determines whether humans can live their develop. Places like the arctic and antartic are not meant for humans much less human development. For example, slums are one of the worst places for humans to develop. Garbage and toxins and pollution are piled high there. Slums are not good for humans because they would get poisoned by the toxins and lead, also, it rains toxic which is not good for the crops there because the toxins would get into their food supply and eventually kill them.
Resources are vital for humans to live. Resources can be found based on the climate. Location is the last key to human development. For example: Would you put a marketplace in the middle of active volcanoes? Location plays a role for development, you would want whatever you want to use to make money in an ideal place that is easy for people to access. Stores are put right on the side of the road for this reason. They would just get what they needed from a place that is easily accessible.
Tropical countries are not always HOT. The climate changes depending on the altitude. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The climate varies depending on altitude, so the higher you get the colder it is for example, you can find snowy mountains all around South America, and chilly and cold valleys as similar as the ones you can find in Europe or the US. Actually, strong biodiversity, humidity levels, sun light are main factors that increase ground quality.
The fertility changes depending on the region, as it happens in any seasonal country. Finally water is not scarce. Sure, I grew up in a tropical country and I have no illusions about it being some humid jungle. Thanks for your comment. I have read so many content regarding the blogger lovers however this paragraph is realkly a gold article, keep it up. Hi there, I found your site byy meaans of Googgle while searcbing for a related topic, your website came up, it seems good. This created rising demand for primary products like food and clothing. However, it was very usual in that period that people did not need to work when they were provided with their basic needs.
As done by Poor Law in England, wages were kept down to encourage people to work more for survival. Hard work furthermore resulted in more need to work. This was an enduring interaction between working more and more needs. In England, low wages resulted in lower cost of textile products and Englishmen began to export clothes first all over Europe then to the whole world. Due to that fact textile industry was the first step of industrial revolution. Colonies at first instance were used to obtain raw material, particularly cotton. But as the industrial revolution resulted in increasing production, the importance of colonies increased once more as markets to export textile products.
New techniques in production process brought competition and were easily adopted by other European countries. The aim of domestic production soon exceeded the borders of home market, as the whole globe became the target of capitalists. Innovations and inventions accelerated to reduce the production cost and to attain competitive prices. The crucial relation between the rise of capitalism and the formation of nation states in Europe is very important to understand the nature of globalization. The development of trade in the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe was accompanied by scientific outlook, state building and wars. The usage of gunpowder helped central rulers to remove the local lords and reformation broke loyalty beyond national borders. To finance their wars rulers encouraged taxable activities, mainly trade and production of primary agricultural products.
Both development of capitalism and state building in Europe fed each other. Merchants, entrepreneurs, investors and bankers had sought for a secure area for profit and the rulers had needed taxable activities to finance their private armies. The aim of both parties overlapped following the 17th century. Nation states were formed and capitalism began to flourish. Capital gained a national character and states protected their capitalists by introducing high tariff barriers in newly industrializing countries, while industrialized countries like Britain forced the former ones to remove trade barriers. At its early formation European states projected colonial foreign policies to facilitate the activities of their businessmen in overseas.
However, after the late 19th century, centralized governments backed by standing armies and strong bureaucracy turned into absolutist regimes. Moreover, as the capitalist investments began to enlarge and production increased, aim of capitalists went beyond the national market. The World War I could be seen a result of irreconcilable imperial policies of European countries, while the World War II partly was resulted from the character of national capitalism.
Once the national capitalism had been formed within secure national borders, it started to accelerate the forces of globalization through its activities abroad that would have soon created an interdependent world capitalist economy. Free trade formulation also contributed to globalization. Ancestor of free trade, Adam Smith argued that resource over the earth could be utilized at optimum level just through an international free trade. By this there exists a division of labor among countries, that is, a country inevitably will produce the commodity for which it has advantageous price. This theory was advocated mostly by English scholars, because England was believed to be the most industrialized country.
It seems that industrial revolution is a turning point in the emergence of world economy. It strengthened capitalism and gave it a global character. Because industrialization created a new kind of society and market relations, world capitalist economy found a convenient circumstance to grow on a global scale. Globalized market triggered other dynamics in terms of nationalism, culture, religion, identity and locality all over the world. There are many outcome of what the world has undergone for the last few centuries like: interdependence among countries, increasing world trade, interconnected financial markets, liberalization and democratization, expansion of consumption culture, homogenization in arts and entertainment and emergence of politics of locality in terms of authentic culture and identity.
So to understand better why industrial revolution is the main impetus behind the globalization process one has to look at the logic of industrial production and its globalizing forces. In a traditional society people manage to become self-sufficient in most of their needs. Foods and clothes could be extracted from land or animals to a great extent. It is true that worldwide trade had always existed among countries and continents. But this trade was more related to luxury commodities that had targeted a small segment of societies.Hong Kong Macau. Although there was limited interaction after the Chinese Revolution in How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture, social interactions improved after the s. Silk How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture trade was confined to the regions beginning from China and India Tennantss Class Action Lawsuit Against Dupont the south and the north of Caspian Sea to Mediterranean How Did The Silk Road Affect Trade And Culture Black Sea.