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In an experimental Bloodstain Pattern Analysis BPA was performed to study the behaviour of blood flows from the wounds of a crucified person, and to compare this to the evidence on the Turin Shroud. The comparison between different tests demonstrated that the blood patterns on the forearms and on the back of the hand are not connected, and would have had to occur at different times, as a result of a very specific sequence of movements. In addition, the rivulets on the front of the image are not consistent with the lines on the lumbar area, even supposing there might have been different episodes of bleeding at different times. These inconsistencies suggest that the Turin linen was an artistic or "didactic" representation, rather than an authentic burial shroud.
Both art-historical, digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied to the shroud images. In scientists analysed a photograph of the shroud image using NASA imaging equipment, and found that the shroud image has the property of decoding into a 3-dimensional image. If the object being photographed is lighted from the front, and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a contrast which is dependent on distance. The front image of the Turin Shroud, 1. If Jesus' dead body actually produced the images on the shroud, one would expect the bodily areas touching the ground to be more distinct.
In fact, Jesus' hands and face are depicted with great detail, while his buttocks and his navel are faintly outlined or invisible, a discrepancy explained with the artist's consideration of modesty. Also, Jesus' right arm and hand are abnormally elongated, allowing him to modestly cover his genital area, which is physically impossible for an ordinary dead body lying supine. No wrinkles or other irregularities distort the image, which is improbable if the cloth had covered the irregular form of a body. For comparison, see oshiguma ; the making of face-prints as an artform, in Japan. Furthermore, Jesus' physical appearance corresponds to Byzantine iconography.
The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in by Charles Lock Eastlake Methods and Materials of Painting of the Great Schools and Masters. Eastlake describes in the chapter "Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to the image on the shroud. In , Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Pavia , stated that he had made a full size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin using only medieval technologies.
Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before being washed to remove the pigment. He then added blood stains, scorches and water stains to replicate the original. Garlaschelli's reproduction was shown in a National Geographic documentary. Garlaschelli's technique included the bas-relief approach described below but only for the image of the face.
The resultant image was visibly similar to the Turin Shroud, though lacking the uniformity and detail of the original. According to the art historian Nicholas Allen, the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century. To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was supposedly made. He described his results in his PhD thesis,  in papers published in several science journals,   and in a book. Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique, which could have been done by medieval arts.
They first did a carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face using collagen dust on a newsprint made from wood pulp which is similar to 13th- and 14th-century paper. They next placed the drawing on a table and covered it with a piece of linen. They then pressed the linen against the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon. By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and no sign of brush strokes.
In , Joe Nickell noted that the Shroud image had a three-dimensional quality and thought its creation may have involved a sculpture of some type. He advanced the hypothesis that a medieval rubbing technique was used to explain the image, and set out to demonstrate this. He noted that while wrapping a cloth around a sculpture with normal contours would result in a distorted image, Nickell believed that wrapping a cloth over a bas-relief might result in an image like the one seen on the shroud, as it would eliminate wraparound distortions. For his demonstration, Nickell wrapped a wet cloth around a bas-relief sculpture and allowed it to dry.
He then applied powdered pigment rather than wet paint to prevent it soaking into the threads. The pigment was applied with a dauber, similar to making a rubbing from a gravestone. The result was an image with dark regions and light regions convincingly arranged. In a photo essay in Popular Photography magazine, Nickell demonstrated this technique step-by-step. In , researcher Jacques di Costanzo constructed a bas-relief of a Jesus-like face and draped wet linen over it. After the linen dried, he dabbed it with a mixture of ferric oxide and gelatine. The result was an image similar to that of the face on the Shroud. Instead of painting, it has been suggested that the bas-relief could also be heated and used to scorch an image onto the cloth.
However researcher Thibault Heimburger performed some experiments with the scorching of linen, and found that a scorch mark is only produced by direct contact with the hot object—thus producing an all-or-nothing discoloration with no graduation of color as is found in the shroud. The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid and a reducing sugar. The cellulose fibers of the shroud are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various sugars, and other impurities.
Rogers also notes that their tests revealed that there were no proteins or bodily fluids on the image areas. Various people have claimed to have detected images of flowers on the shroud, as well as coins over the eyes of the face in the image, writing and other objects. They did not find any images of flowers or coins or writing or any other additional objects on the shroud in either photograph, they noted that the faint images were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in The existence of the coin images is rejected by most scientists.
Some proponents for the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin have argued that the image on the shroud was created by some form of radiation emission at the moment of resurrection. No such effects can be observed in image fibers from the Shroud of Turin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 October Cloth bearing the image of a man who is allegedly Jesus. The Shroud of Turin: modern photo of the face, positive left , and digitally processed image right. Main article: History of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Fringe theories about the Shroud of Turin.
Religion portal Christianity portal Catholicism portal Italy portal. McCrone had identified the blood as red ochre and vermilion tempers paint. Left Coast Press, , p. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 September The Telegraph. National Catholic Reporter. Taylor, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Routledge ; pp. Freer-Waters, A. Retrieved 2 January Nature Materials. Bibcode : NatMa PMID Current Anthropology. JSTOR S2CID Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the Shroud of Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history". Currie, Lloyd A. PMC In Kurian, G. The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Live Science. Retrieved 9 April The orphaned manuscript: a gathering of publications on the Shroud of Turin.
ISBN Retrieved 12 April Report on the Shroud of Turin. Houghton Mifflin. Architecture for the shroud: relic and ritual in Turin. University of Chicago Press. July Journal of Biological Photography. Applied Optics. Bibcode : ApOpt.. Our Sunday Visitor. BBC News. Revue critique". New York: Pocket Books, Componimenti poetici sulla Sindone. Bolla di papa Giulio II Pellegrinaggio di S. Carlo Borromeo a Torino The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 30 March The Vatican Today.
The Economist. Retrieved 19 April Collegamento pro Sindone. Some twenty years ago this ecumenical dimension of this sacred linen became very evident to me on the night of August 16, , when local judicatory leaders offered their corporate blessing to the Turin Shroud Exhibit and participated in the Evening Office of the Holy Shroud. The Greek Archbishop, the Roman Catholic Archbishop, the Episcopal Bishop and the Presiding Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church gathered before the world's first full size, backlit transparency of the Shroud and joined clergy representing the Assemblies of God, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists and Presbyterians in an amazing witness to ecumenical unity.
Peter's Lutheran Church". The Hour. Retrieved 9 May Galena Gazette. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 2 June April Retrieved 6 June The Holy See - Vatican web site. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 17 April Address in Turin Cathedral Speech. Turin, Italy. Archived from the original on 11 May John Bosco". Revue Scientifique. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 24 January PAMI-3 6 : — Lulu Press, Inc. Bibcode : Natur. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. B29 1—2 : — This paper is significant in that it was presented to the international radiocarbon community shortly before radiocarbon dating was performed on the shroud. Thermochimica Acta.
Retrieved 31 July Benford; J. Marino July—August Chemistry Today. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 10 September Statistics and Computing. ISSN ISSN X. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Elsevier BV. Chemistry World. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 16 December National Geographic Daily News. Retrieved 22 March Quoted in Reginald W. Rhein, Jr. Medical World News , 22 December, p. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage. Vol 11, University of Bologna. League of Villains All Might vs. Tomura Shigaraki. Universal Conquest Wiki. Hero Killer Arc Time to Pick Some Names. Gran Torino Appears. Hero Killer Stain vs. The Aftermath of Hero Killer Stain. Listen Up!! A Tale from the Past.
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