➊ Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero

Wednesday, June 09, 2021 1:42:52 AM

Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero

The difficulty concerns the Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero of the Italian noun, Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero emerges in English as a noun phrase. Hilaire Belloc summed up the problem of status in his Taylorian lecture On Translation as long ago asand his words are still perfectly applicable today: The art of translation is a subsidiary art and derivative. Pavis, Patrice. It is his Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero at such Tourism In Hawaii style Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero led to such alterations as the use of contemporary Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero for certain key Roman Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero, so, for example patres Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero plebs becomes Lords or Nobles and Commons; comitium can be Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero hall, High court, Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero praetor becomes Lord Chiefe Justice or Lord Governour of the City. The other theme is about Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero and wealth and what is Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero valuable. Scheldtan important river of Gold In The Great Gatsby and Holland, rises Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero the French dep. The translator is Essay On Mycenaean Culture to the position of a technician, neither poet nor commentator, with a clearly defined but severely limited task. Essays on Aristotle's Poetics.

Macbeth as a Tragic Figure

Retrieved June 1, Anime UK News. Retrieved July 31, Retrieved 4 March Carlson, Marvin. Expanded ed. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP. ISBN Janko, Richard, trans. By Aristotle. Cambridge: Hackett. Pavis, Patrice. Dictionary of the Theatre: Terms, Concepts, and Analysis. Christine Shantz. Toronto and Buffalo: U of Toronto P. Stock characters. Byronic hero Man alone Tragic hero. Cyberhero Supersoldier. Gentleman detective Jack Trickster. Harlequin Zanni. Bad boy Gentleman thief Pirate Air pirate Space pirate.

False hero. Double agent Evil twin. Dark lord Mad scientist Supervillain. Dragon Lady Femme fatale Tsundere. Jungle girl Magical girl. Princesse lointaine Southern belle Valley girl Yamato nadeshiko. Class S Laotong. Columbina Mammy stereotype. Gamer girl. Final girl Princess and dragon. Wise old man Elderly martial arts master Magical Negro. Feral child Noble savage Caveman Moleman Mountain man. Seme and uke Otokonoko. Pachuco Black knight. Irony Leitmotif Metaphor Moral Motif. Past Present Future.

See Romulus. Sable Island , a low, sandy, barren island in the Atlantic, m. Sacerdotalism , a tendency to attach undue importance to the order and the ministry of priests, to the limitation of the operation of Divine grace. Sacheverel, Henry , an English Church clergyman, born at Maryborough, who became notorious in the reign of Queen Anne for his embittered attack contained in two sermons in on the Revolution Settlement and the Act of Toleration; public feeling was turning in favour of the Tories, and the impolitic impeachment of Sacheverel by the Whig Government fanned popular feeling to a great height in his favour; was suspended from preaching for three years, at the expiry of which time the Tories, then in power, received him with ostentatious marks of favour; was soon forgotten; was an Oxford graduate, and a friend of Addison; a man of no real ability Sachs, Julius , a German botanist and professor, born at Breslau; has written several works on botany, and experimented on the physiology of plants; b.

Sacrament , a ceremonial observance in the Christian Church divinely instituted as either really or symbolically a means, and in any case a pledge, of grace. Sacramentarian , a High Churchman who attaches a special sacred virtue to the sacraments of the Church. Sacramento , largest river of California, rises in the NE. Sacramento 29 , capital of California, situated at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers, 90 m. Sacred Wars. See Amphictyonic Council.

Sacrifice , anything of value given away to secure the possession of something of still higher value, and which is the greater and more meritorious the costlier the gift. Sacring-bell , or Sanctus-bell , the bell which rings when the Host is elevated at the celebration of High Mass. Sadducees , a sect of the Jews of high priestly origin that first came into prominence by their opposition to the Pharisees, being the party in power when Pharisaism arose in protestation against their policy as tending to the secularisation of the Jewish faith, or the prostitution of it to mere secular ends. The antagonism which thus arose on political grounds gradually extended to religious matters.

In regard to religion they were the old orthodox party, and acknowledged the obligation of only the written law, and refused to accept tradition at the hands of the Scribes. They denied the immortality of the soul, the separate existence of spirits, and this they did on strictly Old Testament grounds, but this not from any real respect for the authority of Scripture, only as in accord with the main article of their creed, which attached importance only to what bears upon this present life, and which in modern times goes under the name of secularism. They were at bottom a purely political party, and they went out of sight and disappeared from Jewish history with the fall of the Jewish State, only the Pharisaic party surviving in witness of what Judaism is.

Sadoleto, Jacopo , cardinal, born in Modena; acted as secretary under Leo X. Safed 17 , a town of Palestine, 12 m. Saffi , or Asfi 9 , a decayed seaport of Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast, m. Sagas , a collection of epics in prose embodying the myths and legends of the ancient Scandinavians, originally transmitted from mouth to mouth, and that began to assume a literary form about the 12th century. Sagasta, Praxedes Mateo , Spanish statesmen of liberal sympathies; took part in the insurrections of and , and was for some time a fugitive in France; entered Prim's Cabinet, supported the elected King Amadeus, and since his abdication has led the Liberal party; has twice been Prime Minister; b.

Saghalien 12 , a long narrow island belonging to Russia, situated close to the E. Ceded by Japan to Russia in Saguenay , a large and picturesque river of Canada; carries off the surplus waters of Lake St. John, replenished by a number of large streams, and issuing a full-bodied stream, flows SE. Lawrence, m. Saguntum , a town of ancient Spain, was situated where now stands the town of Murviedro, 18 m. Sahara , the largest desert region in the world, stretches E.

The surface is diversified by long sweeps of undulating sand-dunes, elevated plateaux, hill and mountain ranges ft. The most sterile tract is in the W. Rain falls over the greater part at intervals of from two to five years. There are a number of definite caravan routes connecting Timbuctoo and the Central Soudan with the Niger and coast-lands. The greater part is within the sphere of French influence. Saharanpur 59 , a town in the North-West Provinces of India, m. Sahib i. Saigon 16 , capital of French Cochin-China, on the river Saigon, one of the delta streams of the Mekhong, 60 m. Saint , a name applied to a holy or sacred person, especially one canonised; in the plural it is the name assumed by the Mormons.

Aloysius , Italian marquis, who renounced his title, became a Jesuit, devoted himself to the care of the plague-stricken in Rome; died of it, and was canonised Andrews 7 , a famous city of Fife, occupies a bold site on St. Andrews Bay, 42 m. Salvator's and St. Leonard's the first founded in Scotland, and is still an important educational centre, having several excellent schools Madras College the chief ; since the Reformation its trade has gradually dwindled away; fishing is carried on, but it depends a good deal on its large influx of summer visitors, attracted by the splendid golf links and excellent sea-bathing. Asaph 2 , a pretty little city in Flintshire, 6 m. Bees 1 , a village on the Cumberland coast, 4 m.

Law, bishop of Chester; designed for students of limited means; a ruined priory church of Henry I. Bernard , the name of two mountain passes in the Alps: 1, Great St. Bernard , in the Pennine Alps, leading from Martigny to Aosta, is ft. Bernard, do noble service in rescuing perishing travellers from the snow; 2, Little St. Bernard , in the Graian Alps, crosses the mountains which separate the valleys of Aosta and Tarantaise in Savoy.

Hannibal is supposed to have crossed the Alps by this pass. Brieuc 16 , capital of the dep. Christopher or St. Kitts 30 , one of the Leeward Islands, in the West Indies archipelago, 45 m. Clair, which in turn pours its surplus waters by means of the Detroit River into Lake Erie. Cloud 5 , a town in the dep. Cyr 3 , a French village, 2 m. Saint-Cyr, Laurent Gouvion, Marquis de , marshal of France, born at Toul; joined the army in , and in six years had risen to the command of the French forces at Rome; fought with distinction in the German and Italian campaigns, and in the Peninsular War; won his marshal's baton during the Russian campaign of ; was captured at the capitulation of Dresden in , much to the regret of Napoleon; created a peer after the Restoration, and was for some time Minister of War; wrote some historical works Davids 2 , an interesting old cathedral town in Pembrokeshire, on the streamlet Alan, and not 2 m.

Brides Bay; its cathedral, rebuilt after in the Transition Norman style, was at one time a famous resort of pilgrims. On the other side of the Alan stand the ruins of Bishop Gower's palace. Denis 48 , a town of France, on a canal of the same name, 4 m. Elias, Mount , an isolated, inaccessible volcanic mountain in the extreme NW. Elmo's Fire. See Elmo's Fire, St. Gall , a NE. Gall 28 , the capital, is situated on the Steinach, 53 m. Gothard , a noted mountain in the Lepontine Alps, ft. Helena 4 , a precipitous cliff-bound island lying well out in the Atlantic, m.

Jamestown 2 , the capital, is a second-class coaling station for the navy, and is fortified. Helens 71 , a thriving manufacturing town of Lancashire, on Sankey Brook, a feeder of the Mersey, 21 m. Helier 29 , capital of Jersey Island, on St. Aubin Bay, on the S. Ives , 1, a town in Cornwall, 8 m. It gives name to the British court. John , a river of North America, rises in the highlands of North Maine and crosses the continent in an easterly direction and falls into the Bay of Fundy after a course of m.

John 39 , embracing the adjacent town of Portland, chief commercial city of New Brunswick, on the estuary of St. John River, m. Johns 26 , capital of Newfoundland, situated on a splendid harbour on the peninsula or Avalon, in the E. Joseph , a city of Missouri, on the Missouri River here spanned by a fine bridge , m. See Kilda, St. Lawrence, forming a broad estuary; is m.

Louis , 1, One of the great commercial cities of the United States, capital of Missouri State; situated on the Mississippi here spanned by two fine bridges , 21 m. Malo 12 , a strongly fortified seaport of France, on the Brittany coast department of Ille-et-Vilaine , at the mouth of the Ranee; the old town is built over the Rocher d'Auron, an islet connected with the mainland by a causeway yards long; there is a good harbour, and a considerable amount of shipping is done; potatoes, dairy-produce, and some cereals are exported. It was the birthplace of several distinguished French authors and sailors.

Michael's , the largest and most fertile of the Azores, 40 m. Michael's Mount , an islet, forming a precipitous granite mass, in Mount's Bay, Cornwall, connected with the mainland by a low causeway passable only at low tides; a fine old castle crowns its rocky height, and a small fishing village lies sheltered on the northern side. Michel, Mont , a remarkable islet in St. Michel Bay, SW. Nazaire 26 , a flourishing seaport of France, on the Loire, 40 m.

Neots 4 , an old market-town of Huntingdonshire, on the Ouse, 8 m. Nicholas , the patron saint of boys, who was fabled to bring presents to good children on Christmas eve; was bishop of Myra in the 4th century, and had taken a special interest in the young. Omer 20 , a fortified town of France, on the Aa, 26 m. Paul's Churchyard, but was burned out by the Great Fire of ; the present building was opened in There are a number of Oxford and Cambridge exhibitions. Petersburg 1, , capital of Russia, an imposing city, occupying a dreary, isolated site at the head of the Gulf of Finland, on the banks and delta islands of the Neva, founded in by Peter the Great; a large number of bridges span the main stream and its numerous divisions; massive stone quays hold back the waters, but a rise of 12 ft.

Quentin 48 , a manufacturing town of France, on the Somme, 95 m. See St. Simon, Comte de. Thomas , 1, an unhealthy volcanic island 20 in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal; produces coffee, cocoa, and some spices; chief town, St. Thomas 3 , a port on the NE. Thomas 12 , is now a coaling-station for steamers. Thomas's , a handsome hospital on the S. Saint-Victor, Paul de , an ornate French writer, born in Paris; from was engaged in dramatic and other criticism, and established his reputation as a stylist of unusual brilliance. Vincent 41 , one of the Windward Islands, in the West Indies, m. Vincent, Cape , a lofty and rugged headland in the extreme SW. Vincent, John Jervis, Earl , a noted English admiral, born at Meaford Hill, Staffordshire; ran away to sea when a boy, and by gallantry at Quebec in and otherwise rose rapidly in the service; commanded the naval attack upon the French West Indies , and four years later, as admiral of the Mediterranean fleet, shared with Nelson the honours of a brilliant victory over the combined fleets of France and Spain off Cape St.

Vincent; was created an earl in reward; during was a successful First Lord of the Admiralty Thomas, West Indies; occupied for many years the chair of Chemistry in the Sorbonne, Paris; his important contributions to chemical knowledge include a process for simplifying the extraction of aluminium and platinum Saintes 15 , an interesting old town in West France, dep. Saivas , in the Hindu religion the worshippers of Siva, one of the two great sections of the Hindus, the worshippers of Vishnu being the other. Saki , a beer of alcoholic quality made in Japan from rice by fermentation. It is drunk hot at meals, and is in a small way intoxicating. Sakyamuni i. Salamanca 22 , an interesting old city of Spain, capital of a province of the same name, occupies a hilly site on the Tormes, here spanned by a Roman bridge, m.

Salamander , an elemental spirit conceived in the Middle Ages as an animal that lived in the fire as its proper element. Salamis , a mountainous island of Greece, on the NW. Sale, Sir Robert Henry , British general; saw a great deal of fighting; was distinguished in the Burmese War of , and in the war against Afghanistan in , in both of which he was wounded, and afterwards in the latter country during ; he was killed at the battle of Mudki fighting against the Sikhs Salem , 1, a city 36 and seaport of the United States, founded in on a peninsula in Massachusetts Bay, 15 m.

Salerno 22 , a city of South Italy, on a gulf of the name, 33 m. Salette, La , a French village amid Alpine scenery, 28 m. Salford , a suburb of Manchester, with cotton factories and iron-works, and with Manchester forms the second largest city in England. Salic Law , a law which obtained among the Salian Franks, as also in certain German States, which excluded females from succession to the throne. Salicylic Acid , produced in commercial quantities from carbolic acid; is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, odourless, of a sweetish acid taste; largely used as an external antiseptic, and internally in the form of salicylate of sodium as a febrifuge and cure for acute rheumatism.

Salisbury 17 , a cathedral city, and capital of Wiltshire, 84 m. Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoigne Cecil, Marquis of , statesman, educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; as Lord Cecil, represented Stamford in Parliament in ; was, as Lord Cranborne, Secretary for India in under Lord Derby; entered the House of Lords as Lord Salisbury in , and distinguished himself as foremost in debate; became Secretary for India under Disraeli in , and Secretary for Foreign Affairs in , in which latter year he, on the death of Beaconsfield, became leader of the Conservative party; after this he was three times raised to the Premiership, the last time on Lord Roseberys retirement in , by coalition with the Liberal Unionists q.

Salmon, George , mathematician and divine, born in Dublin, and there in graduated with mathematical honours at Trinity College; became a Fellow, entered the Church, and in was elected regius professor of Divinity, becoming provost of the college in ; has carried on with eminent success his dual studies, mathematics and theology, and has published some notable works in both sciences, e. Salonica or Saloniki , the Thessalonica of the Scriptures, the second port and city of Turkey in Europe; occupies a bold and rocky site at the head of the Gulf of Salonica, m. Salsette , an island N. Salt, Sir Titus , English manufacturer, born near Leeds; introduced the manufacture of alpaca, planted his factory at Saltaire, near Leeds, which he made a model village for his workers as a philanthropic employer of labour Salt Lake City 53 , the capital of Utah, a high-lying city and stronghold of Mormonism, 11 m.

Salt Range , a tract of lofty tableland buttressed on either side by mountain ranges to ft. Salts , in chemistry an important class of compound substances formed by the union of an acid with a metal or a base, that is, a substance having, like a metal, the power of replacing in part or in whole the hydrogen of the acid employed. Saltus, Edgar , an interesting American writer, born in New York; a busy writer in fiction, biography Balzac , and philosophy, e. Salvador , the smallest but the most densely populated of the republics of Central America, about one-sixth the size of England and Wales; has a western foreshore between Guatemala N.

The natives are chiefly Indians of Aztec descent, but speaking Spanish. The government is vested in a president and chamber of deputies. Education is free and compulsory. Broke away from Spanish control in ; was a member of the Central American Confederacy, but since has enjoyed complete independence. Capital, San Salvador q. Salvation Army , a modern religious organisation and propaganda, remarkable alike for its novel methods and phenomenal expansion; assumed its present quasi-military form in , but is in reality the outgrowth of a mission founded in London in by the Rev.

William Booth q. It is in essence a protest against the older conventional methods of propagating the Christian religion, and would seem by its remarkable success to have ministered to some latent and wide-spread need among the poorer classes. In it numbered , enrolled soldiers, 25, local officers, and 11, officers; these are spread over 35 countries. The members assume semi-military attire, march through the streets to the sound of musical instruments, displaying banners; but while these and other sensational devices bring its purposes home to the hearts of the people, its vitality rests upon the real spiritual devotion and self-sacrifice of its members.

Various agencies of a more directly philanthropic kind homes of rest, rescues, workshops, farms, etc. Funds are raised by means of the War Cry and other periodicals. Salween , a river of Asia whose source is still uncertain; forms in its lower part the boundary between Siam and British Burma, and falls into the Gulf of Martaban; its upper course traverses the northern Shan district; only 80 m. Salzburg , a western province and duchy of Austria, borders on Bavaria between the Tyrol and Upper Austria; is woody and mountainous, especially in the S. The inhabitants, being Protestants, were severely persecuted by the Church, and 30, of them emigrated in , and on the invitation of Frederick William of Prussia settled in Lithuania, that had been desolated by plague.

Salzburg 28 , the capital, occupies a fine site on the hill-girt banks of the Salzach crossed by 3 bridges , 80 m. Salzkammergut 18 , a beautiful mountain district of Austria, between Salzburg W. Sam Slick. See Slick. Sam Weller. See Weller. Samarcand 33 , a city of West Turkestan, situated at the western base of the Tian-Shan Mountains, m. Suffered at the hands of Genghis Khan in the 13th century; was Timur's capital in the 14th century, and has since been held sacred by the Moslems. Captured by the Russians in , who have improved it, and built a handsome suburb on the west. Samaria , a city of a district of the name between Judea and Galilee in the Holy Land, and which became the capital of the North Kingdom of Israel after the revolt from the Southern; was desolated by the hosts of Assyria in B.

Samaritan Pentateuch , a version of the Pentateuch in use among the Samaritans, and alone accepted by them as canonical. It is of value from its independence of other versions. See Samaria. Samaveda , the section of the Veda that contains the chants, intended for singers. Samnites , a warlike people of ancient Italy in territory SE. A revolt in 90 B. Samoa , or Navigators' Islands 36 , a group of 14 volcanic islands in the W. Louis Stevenson spent the last five years of his life. Samoyedes , a people of the Mongolian race, occupying the N. Samson , ranked as judge of Israel, but the story of his life is as of a Jewish hero, distinguished for his feats of strength; employed in the service of his country against the Philistines.

Samson Agonistes , the strong man of a nation or race caught in the net of his and their enemies, and, encompassed by them, wrestling in his soul's agony to free himself from them; the imagery here being suggested by the story of Samson in the hands of the Philistines. Samuel , a Jewish prophet, born, of the tribe of Levi, about B. Samuel, Books of , two books of the Old Testament, originally one, and divided in the Septuagint into two, entitled respectively the First and Second Books of Kings; the narrative embraces a period of years, and extends from the time of the Judges to the close of the reign of David, including the intermediate judgeship of Samuel and the reign of Saul, with the view of exalting the prophetic office on the one hand and the kingly office on the other.

San Antonio 53 , the second city of Texas, of Spanish origin, on a river of the name, 80 m. San Diego 16 , a thriving port in S. California, situated on a handsome bay of the same name, m. San Domingo 25 , capital of the Dominican Republic, a fortified port on the S. San Francisco , capital of California, and commercial metropolis of the W.

The name also of small towns in Guatemala, Lower California, and Uruguay. San Juan , a mountainous province of the Argentine Republic, on the Chilian border; is rich in metals, but, save coal, not worked; agriculture is the chief industry. San Juan 12 , on a river of the same name, is the capital, lies 98 m. The name of numerous other towns in different parts of Spanish South America.

San Marino 8 , a little republic of Europe which has maintained its independence since the 4th century; comprises a town same name and several villages occupying rocky and elevated sites on the eastern slopes of the Apennines; some agriculture and cattle-rearing are done; is under the friendly protection of Italy. San Salvador 20 , capital of Salvador q. San Sebastian 30 , a fortified seaport of North Spain, on a small peninsula jutting into the Bay of Biscay, 10 m. San Stefano , a Turkish village, a few miles W. Sancho Panza , the immortal squire of Don Quixote. See Panza, Sancho. Sanchoniathon , a Phoenician historian of uncertain date; author of a history of Phoenicia, of which only a few fragments remain, and that of a translation into Greek; he is supposed to have lived in the time of Semiramus.

Sancroft, William , an English prelate, born in Suffolk; rose through a succession of preferments to be Archbishop of Canterbury; was with six other bishops committed to the Tower for petitioning against James II. Sand, George , the assumed name of Aurore Dupin, notable French novelist, born in Paris; married Baron Dudevant, a man of means, but with no literary sympathies; became the mother of two children, and after nine years effected a separation from him and went to Paris to push her way in literature, and involved herself in some unhappy liaisons , notably with Alfred de Musset q. Cloud See Glassites. Sanderson, Burdon , English physiologist; professor of Physiology first at University College, London, and since at Oxford; is one of the greatest authorities on the subject; b.

Sanderson, Robert , English prelate, great casuist; became chaplain to Charles I. Sandwich 3 , one of the old Cinque Ports q. Sandwich Islands. See Hawaiian Islands. Sangha , the Buddhist Church, and the third term of the Triratna or Buddhist trinity, the two other being Buddha and Dharma, his law. See Graal, Holy. Sanhedrim , a council of the Jews which held its sittings in Jerusalem, and claimed authority and jurisdiction over the whole Jewish people; it was an aristocratic body, and was presided over by the high-priest; its authority was limited from time to time, and it ceased to exist with the fall of Jerusalem; there is no note of its existence prior to the Grecian period of Jewish history.

Sankara , a Hindu teacher of the philosophy or the Vedas, who lived some time between and B. Sans Souci i. Sansculottes i. Sansculottism , belief in the rights of man, stript of all the conventional vestures and badges by which alone, and without any other ground of right, one man maintains an ascendency over another. Sanskrit , the name given to the ancient literary language of the Hindus, still preserved in their literature, belongs to the Aryan family of languages, in their purest form and most perfect development. Santa-Anna, Antonio de , a noted soldier and President of Mexico, entered the army as a boy, and from the proclamation of the Republic in till his final exile in was embroiled in all the wars, intrigues, and revolutions of his country; was four times President, and on the last occasion was appointed for life, but his habitual harshness alienated the people in two years; fled the country as on many former crises in his life; intrigued against the newly-established empire, but was captured and sentenced to death ; allowed to expatriate himself, and died in exile; he was one of the most forceful characters in Mexican history Santa Claus , contraction of St.

Nicholas q. Santa Cruz or St. Croix 20 , one of the Virgin Islands; produces sugar, rum, and cotton; ceded by France to Denmark in ; a serious nigger revolt took place in ; capital is Christianstadt 6. Santals , one of the aboriginal tribes of India, inhabiting a district in the province of Bengal, which stretches southward from the Ganges; they are chiefly hunters, but also agriculturists; dwell by the forest edges, are fond of music, and are sun-worshippers; number considerably over a million.

Santander 42 , a flourishing port of North Spain, stands on a fine bay facing the Bay of Biscay, m. Santiago , capital of Chile, beautifully situated on a wide fertile and elevated plain overhung on the N. Santiago de Compostella 23 , a city of Spain, in Galicia, of which it was formerly the capital, 26 m. Santiago de Cuba 71 , formerly capital of Cuba, on a beautiful land-locked bay on the S. Atlantic after a course of m. Sapphire , a precious stone of the corundum class, and differing from the ruby q. Sappho , a lyric poetess of Greece of the 7th century B.

Saragossa 95 , an interesting city of Spain, and capital of Aragon, on the Ebro, which flows through it, m. Sarasate, Martin Meliton , a Spanish violinist, and one of the most finished of the day, a Basque by birth, but educated at Paris; has travelled over the world, winning fame and a fortune; made his first appearance in London in ; is composer of some light pieces; b. Sarasvati , a Hindu goddess, and ultimately the wife of Brahma and goddess of music and eloquence. Saratoff , a handsome city of Russia, on the Volga, m.

Sardinia , an island of the Mediterranean, m. Sardis , capital of ancient Lydia, in Asia Minor, at the foot of Mount Tmolus, celebrated for its wealth, its trade, and luxury, through the market-place of which the river Pactolus flowed with its sands of gold. Sarmatians or Sarmats , an ancient race, embracing several warlike nomadic tribes, who spoke the Scythian language, and inhabited the shores of the Black Sea and Eastern Europe as far as the Caucasus; fought with Mithridates against the Romans; were overwhelmed by the Goths in the 4th century A. Sarto, Andreo del i. Andrew, the tailors son , a Florentine artist; painted in oil and fresco numerous works; died of the plague at Florence, his work displays accuracy of drawing and delicacy of feeling Sartor Resartus i.

It is a book in many respects unparalleled in literature, and for spiritual significance and worth the most remarkable that has been written in the century. It was written in the time and for the time by one who understood the time as not another of his contemporaries succeeded in doing, and who interprets it in a light in which every man must read it who would solve its problems to any purpose. Its style is an offence to many, but not to any one who loves wisdom and has faith in God. For it is a brave book, and a reassuring, as well as a wise, the author of it regarding the universe not as a dead thing but a living, and athwart the fire deluges that from time to time sweep it, and seem to threaten with ruin everything in it we hold sacred, descrying nothing more appalling than the phoenix-bird immolating herself in flames that she may the sooner rise renewed out of her ashes and soar aloft with healing in her wings.

Saskatchewan , one of the great and navigable rivers of Canada, rises among the Rockies in two great branches, called respectively the North and South Saskatchewan, and m. The upper branches traverse and give their name to one of the western territories of Canada. Sassari 32 , the second city of Sardinia, in the NW. Satan , an archangel who, according to the Talmud, revolted against the Most High, particularly when required to do homage to Adam, and who for his disobedience was with all his following cast into the abyss of hell. See Devil. Satellites lit. Satire , a species of poetry or prose writing in which the vice or folly of the times is held up to ridicule, a species in which Horace and Juvenal excelled among the Romans, and Dryden, Pope, and Swift among us.

Satrap , a governor of a province under the ancient Persian monarchy, with large military and civil powers; when the central authority began to wane, some of them set up as independent rulers. Saturn , in the Roman mythology a primitive god of agriculture in Italy, often confounded with the Greek Kronos, the father of Zeus, and sovereign of the Golden Age; was represented as an old man bearing a sickle. Saturnalia , a festival in ancient Rome in honour of Saturn, in which all classes, free and bond, and young and old, enjoyed and indulged in all kinds of merriment without restraint.

Satyrs , in the Greek mythology semi-animal woodland deities who roamed the hills generally in the train of Dionysus q. Sauerkraut , a favourite article of food in Germany and elsewhere in North Europe; formed of thinly sliced young cabbage laid in layers, with salt and spice-seeds, pressed in casks and allowed to ferment. Sauerteig i. Saul , a Benjamite, the son of Kish, who fell in with Samuel as he was on the way in search of his father's asses that had gone astray, and from his stature and stately bearing was anointed by him to be first king of Israel; he distinguished himself in the field against the enemies of his people, but fell at the hands of the Philistines after a reign of 40 years, and after several insane attempts on the life of David, who had been elected to succeed him.

Saumarez, James, Baron de , English admiral, born at Guernsey; entered the navy at 13, distinguished himself in the American War, captured a French frigate in , which brought him knighthood; was second in command at the battle of the Nile, and gained a great victory off Cadiz in ; was raised to the peerage in Saumur 14 , a town of France, in the department of Maine-et-Loire, situated on the Loire and partly on an island in the river, 32 m. Saussure, Horace Benedict de , geologist and physicist, born in Geneva; was the first to ascend Mont Blanc in the interest of science, and was distinguished for his researches in the same interest all over the Alps and on other mountain ranges; he invented or improved several scientific instruments Saville, Sir Henry , a learned scholar, born in Yorkshire; was tutor to Queen Elizabeth and provost of Eton, and founder of the Savilian professorships of Geometry and Astronomy at Oxford Savona 24 , a seaport of Italy, on the Gulf of Genoa, in the Riviera, 26 m.

Savonarola, Girolamo , Italian reformer, born at Ferrara of a noble family; was in his youth of a studious ascetic turn, became at 24 a Dominican monk, was fired with a holy zeal for the purity of the Church, and issued forth from his privacy to denounce the vices that everywhere prevailed under her sanction, with threats of divine judgment on her head, so that the impressions his denunciations made were deep and wide-spread; the effect was especially marked in Florence, where for three years the reformer's influence became supreme, till a combination of enemies headed by the Pope succeeded in subverting it to his ejection from the Church, his imprisonment, and final execution, preceded by that of his confederates Fra Domenico and Fra Silvestro; it was as a reformer of the morals of the Church and nowise of its dogmas that Savonarolo presented himself, while the effect of his efforts was limited pretty much to his own day and generation Savoy, Duchy of , in the SE.

Aix-les-Bains, Evian, and Challes are popular watering-places. Savoy, House of , an ancient royal house of Europe represented now by the king of Italy , whose territorial possessions were constituted a county of the empire in the 12th century under the name Savoy; was created a duchy in the 15th century. By the treaty of Utrecht the island of Sicily was ceded to Savoy and the title of king bestowed upon the duke; in Victor Amadeus II. Savoy, The , a district of the Strand, London, in which a palace was built in called of the Savoy, in which John of France was confined after his capture at Poitiers; was burnt at the time of the Wat Tyler insurrection, but rebuilt in as a hospital; it included a chapel, which was damaged by fire in , but restored by the Queen.

Saxe-Weimar, Amalia, Duchess of , was of the Guelph family, and married to the duke, and in two years was left a widow and in government of the duchy, attracting to her court all the literary notabilities of the day, Goethe the chief, till in she resigned her authority to her son, who followed in her footsteps Saxon Switzerland , name given to a mountainous region in Saxony, SE. Saxons , a people of the Teutonic stock who settled early on the estuary of the Elbe and the adjoining islands, who in their piratical excursions infested and finally settled in Britain and part of Gaul, and who, under the name of Anglo-Saxons, now hold sovereign sway over large sections of the globe.

Saxony 3, , a kingdom of Germany, lies within the basin of the Elbe, facing on the E. Saxony, Prussian 2, , a province of Prussia, chiefly comprises that part of Saxony q. Sayce, Alexander Henry , philologist, born near Bristol; has written works on the monuments of the East, bearing chiefly on Old Testament history; b. Porsena, moved by his courage, both pardoned him, and on hearing that as defiant had sworn his death, made peace with Rome and departed. Scafell , a Cumberland mountain on the borders of Westmorland, with two peaks, one ft.

Scale, Delfa , a prince of Verona, and a general of the Ghibellines in Lombardy, who offered Dante an asylum when expelled from Florence Scaliger, Joseph Justus , eminent scholar, son of the following, born at Agen; educated by his father; followed in his father's footsteps, and far surpassed him in scholarship; travelled over Europe, and became a zealous Protestant; accepted the chair of belles lettres in the University of Leyden on condition that he should not be called upon to lecture, and gave himself up to a life of study, especially on matters philological and literary; was a man of universal knowledge, and the creator of modern chronology Scanderbeg i.

Prince or Bey Alexander , the patriot chief of Albania, and the great hero of Albanian independence, who in the 15th century renounced Islamism for Christianity, and by his military prowess and skill freed Albania from the Turkish yoke; throughout his lifetime maintained its independence, crushing again and again the Turkish armies; was known among the Christians as George Castriot Scandinavia , the ancient name still used of the great northern peninsula of Europe, which embraces Norway q. Scarborough 34 , a popular seaside town and watering-place on the Yorkshire coast; built on rising ground on the shores of a fine bay; is a place of great antiquity, with interesting ruins; has churches, harbour, piers, and a fine promenade; noted for the manufacture of jet.

Scattery Island , in the Shannon estuary, 3 m. Scepticism , primarily doubt respecting, and ultimately disbelief in, the reality of the super-sensible, or the transcendental, or the validity of the evidence on which the belief in it is founded, such as reason or revelation, and in religious matters is tantamount to infidelity more or less sweeping. Sceptre , the symbol of royal power, power to command and compel, originally a club, the crown being the symbol of dominion. Schadow, Johannes Gottfried , sculptor, born in Berlin; was trained in Rome under the best masters, returned to Berlin, and became Director of the Academy of Arts; laboured here for 62 years, and produced works which placed him among the first rank of artists; he had two sons, one of whom distinguished himself as a sculptor, and the other as a painter Schaff, Philip , a theologian, born in Switzerland; studied in Germany; came recommended by high names to the United States, and became professor first in Pennsylvania, and finally in New York Schaffhausen 38 , a canton in the extreme N.

The capital, Schaffhausen 19 , occupies a picturesque site on the Rhine, 31 m. The famous falls, the finest on the Rhine, are 3 m. Schall, Johann Adam von , Jesuit missionary to China, born at Cologne; was received with honours at the Imperial Court; obtained permission to preach, and founded churches to the spread of Christianity, a privilege which was revoked by the next emperor; he was subjected to imprisonment, which shortened his life See Shamyl. Scharnhorst, Gerhard von , a Prussian general, distinguished as the organiser of the Prussian army, to the establishment of a national force instead of a mercenary; died of a wound in battle Scheffer, Ary , painter, born at Dordrecht, of German and Dutch parentage; settled in Paris; began as a genre -painter; illustrated Dante, Goethe, and Byron, and in the end painted religious subjects; he did excellent portraits also; was of the Romantic school Scheldt , an important river of Belgium and Holland, rises in the French dep.

Schemnitz 15 , a town of Hungary, noted as a mining centre since Roman times, situated in the midst of a mountainous region, 65 m. Scherer, Edmond , French critic, born in Paris, spent his early years in England, his mother being English; was for some time devoted to theology and the Church, but changed his views; settled in Paris, and took to journalism and politics, distinguishing himself more especially in literary criticism Schleicher, August , German philologist, did eminent service by his studies in the Indo-Germanic languages, and particularly in the Slavonic languages Schlemihl, Peter , the name of a man who in Chamisso's tale sold his shadow to the devil, a synonym of one who makes a desperate or silly bargain.

Schliemann, Heinrich , a German explorer, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin; excavated at his own cost the ruins, among others in Greece, of Hissarlik, in the Troad, believing them to be those of Troy; spent 12 years in this enterprise, collecting the spoils and depositing them in safe keeping in Berlin; died at Naples before his excavations were complete Schlossner, Friedrich Christoph , German historian, born in Oldenburg; was studios of the moral factor in history, and gave especial prominence to it Schmalkaldic League , a league of the Protestant States of Germany concluded in at Schmalkalden, Prussia, in defence of their religious and civil liberties against the Emperor Charles V.

Schnitzer, Eduard , physician, born in Breslau; went to Turkey, entered the Turkish medical service, adopted the name Emin Pasha, and was appointed by Gordon medical officer of the Equatorial Province of Egypt, and raised to the rank of Pasha; soon after the outbreak of the Mahdist insurrection he was cut off from civilisation, but was discovered by Stanley in and brought to Zanzibar, after which he was murdered by Arabs Scholasticism , the name given to the philosophy that prevailed in Europe during the Middle Ages, particularly in the second half of them, and has been generally characterised as an attempt at conciliation between dogma and thought, between faith and reason, an attempt to form a scientific system on that basis, founded on the pre-supposition that the creed of the Church was absolutely true, and capable of rationalisation.

Scholiasts , name given to a class of grammarians who appended annotations to the margins of the MSS. Scholten, Hendrik , a Dutch theologian of the rationalistic school Schomberg, Duke of , French marshal, of German origin and the Protestant persuasion; took service under the Prince of Orange, and fell at the battle of the Boyne Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe , a noted American ethnologist, born in New York State; at 24 was geologist to an exploring expedition undertaken by General Cass to Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi; married the educated daughter of an Ojibway chief; founded the Historical Society of Michigan and the Algic Society at Detroit; discovered the sources of the Mississippi in ; was an active and friendly agent for the Indians, and in began, under Government authorisation, his great work of gathering together all possible information regarding the Indian tribes of the United States, an invaluable work embodied in six great volumes; author also of many other works treating of Indian life, exploration, etc.

Schoolmen , teachers of the scholastic philosophy q. Schouvaloff, Count Peter , a Russian ambassador, born at St. Petersburg; became in head of the secret police; came to England in on a secret mission to arrange the marriage of the Emperor Alexander II. His brother, Count Paul, fought in the Crimean War, helped to liberate the Russian serfs, fought in the Russo-Turkish War, and was governor of Warsaw during ; b. Schreiner, Right Hon. Schuyler, Philip John , leader in the American War of Independence, born at Albany, of Dutch descent; served in arms under Washington, and health failing for action, became one of Washington's most sagacious advisers Schuylkill , a river of Pennsylvania, rises on the N.

Schwann, Theodor , German physiologist, born at Neuss; made several discoveries in physiology, and established the cell theory Schwarz, Berthold , an alchemist of the 13th century, born at Fribourg, a monk of the order of Cordeliers; is credited with the discovery of gunpowder when making experiments with nitre. Schwarz, Christian Friedrich , German missionary in India, born in Brandenburg; laboured 16 years at Trichinopoly, gained the friendship of the Rajah of Tanjore, and settled there in ; succeeded also in winning the favour of Hyder Ali of Mysore, and proved himself to be in all senses a minister of the gospel of peace Schwarzburg, House of , one of the oldest noble families of Germany; first comes into authentic history in the 12th century with Count Sizzo IV.

Schwarzenburg, Karl Philip, Prince von , Austrian general, born at Vienna, of a noble family there; entered the army and distinguished himself in the wars against the Turks, the French Republic, and Napoleon; fought at Austerlitz and Wagram, negotiated the marriage of Napoleon with Maria Louisa, commanded the Austrian contingent sent to aid France in , but joined the allies against Napoleon at Dresden and Leipzig, and captured Paris in at the head of the army of the Rhine Schwenckfeld, Caspar von , a Protestant sectary, born in Lower Silesia, of a noble family; as a student of the Scriptures embraced the Reformation, but differed from Luther on the matter of the dependence of the divine life on external ordinances, insisting, as George Fox afterwards did, on its derivation from within; like Fox he travelled from place to place proclaiming this, and winning not a few disciples, and exposed himself to much persecution at the hands of men of whom better things were to be expected, but he bore it all with a Christ-like meekness; died at Ulm; his writings were treated with the same indignity as himself, and his followers were after his death driven from one place of refuge to another, till the last remnant of them found shelter under the friendly wing of Count Zinzendorf q.

Schwerin 34 , capital of the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; has a pretty site on Lake of Schwerin 14 m. Schwyz 50 , one of the three original cantons of Switzerland, German speaking and Catholic; Lake Zurich forms part of the N. The capital 7 , same name, is prettily situated 26 m. It can never tell us what a thing really and intrinsically is, but only why it has become so; it can only, in other words, refer us to one inscrutable as the ground and explanation of another inscrutable. Art has not, like science, to do merely with the reasoning powers, but with the inmost nature of man, where each must count only for what he really is.

Scilly Islands , a rugged group of islands belonging to Cornwall, 27 m. Mary's acres, pop. Smith, and his nephew, T. Darien Smith, who succeeded in Scioppius, Caspar , a Protestant renegade, born in the Palatinate; turned Catholic on a visit to Rome, and devoted his life to vilify his former co-religionists, and to invoke the Catholic powers to combine to their extermination; he was a man of learning, but of most infirm temper Scipio, P.

Cornelius, the Younger , surnamed Africanus Minor, adopted by the preceding, the proper name being L. Scone pronounced Scoon , a, village in Perthshire, on the left bank of the Tay, 2 m. Scoresby, William , scientist, born at Whitby; began life as a sailor; visited the Arctic regions twice over, and wrote an account of his explorations; took to the Church, and held several clerical charges, but retired in , and gave himself to scientific researches, both at home and abroad Scotland 4, , the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, separated from England by the Solway, Cheviots, and Tweed, and bounded N.

Scots, The , a tribe of Celts from Ireland who settled in the W. Scott, Sir George Gilbert , English architect, born in Buckinghamshire, son of Scott the commentator; was the builder or restorer of buildings both in England and on the Continent after the Gothic, and wrote several works on architecture. Scott, Michael , a sage with the reputation of a wizard, who lived about the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries, of whose art as a magician many legends are related. Much as the rise of Scott's fame was owing to his poetical works, it is on the ground of his prose writings, as the freest and fullest exhibition of his genius, that it is now mainly founded.

The period of his productivity in this line extended over 18 years in all, commencing with the year His active life, which ranges from to , lay in picturing things and traditions of things as in youth, a 25 years' period of continuous crescent expansiveness, he had learned to view them, and his slow death was the result, not of mere weariness in working, but of the adverse circumstances that thwarted and finally wrecked the one unworthy ambition that had fatally taken possession of his heart.

Scott is beyond comparison the greatest intellectual force manifested in Europe since Shakespeare Scott, William Bell , painter and poet, brother of David Scott, born in Edinburgh; did criticism and wrote on artists; is best known by his autobiography Scribe, Eugene , French dramatist, a prolific and a successful, who produced plays for half a century, well adapted for the stage, if otherwise worthless Scribes, The i. Scriblerus, Martinus , the subject of a fictitious memoir published in Pope's works and ascribed to Arbuthnot q.

Sculptured Stones , a name specially applied to certain varieties of commemorative monuments usually rough-hewn slabs or boulders, and in a few cases well-shaped crosses of early Christian date found in various parts of the British Isles, bearing lettered and symbolic inscriptions of a rude sort and ornamental designs resembling those found on Celtic MSS. Also name of a small town 5 in European Turkey, situated at the S. Scylla and Charybdis , two rocks opposite each other at a narrow pass of the strait between Italy and Sicily, in the cave of one of which dwelt the former, a fierce monster that barked like a dog, and under the cliff of the other of which dwelt the latter, a monster that sucked up everything that came near it, so that any ship passing between in avoiding the one become a prey to the other.

Scythians , the name of a people of various tribes that occupied the steppes of SE.

Symbolism And Symbols In Persepolis Weller. Sidonan ancient Phoenician city on the E. Overall, though Othello is Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero to Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero slurs from some characters, he is respected Macbeth: An Aristotelian Tragic Hero embraced as a true hero by many.

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