➊ Amoxicillin Research Paper
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Amoxicillin - Bacterial Targets, Mechanism of Action, Adverse Effects - Antibiotic Lesson
And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.
What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts. The social science sample Sample 1 below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study.
The authors use the past tense to describe previous research. The humanities sample Sample 2 below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the s and 80s and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article. The science samples Samples 3 and 4 below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found.
In their rationale or justification for their research what remains to be done , they use the present tense. Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications. Emily Callaci. Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells. Lalit, Pratik A. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G. Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J. Garry, Ron Stewart, James A. Thomson, Karen M. Downs, Gary E. Lyons, and Timothy J. Reporting results about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis, from a rigorously controlled study.
Note: This journal requires authors to organize their abstract into four specific sections, with strict word limits. Because the headings for this structured abstract are self-explanatory, we have chosen not to add annotations to this sample abstract. Wald, Ellen R. Controlled synthesis is usually based on a two-step reduction process: in the first step a strong reducing agent is used to produce small particles; in the second step these small particles are enlarged by further reduction with a weaker reducing agent [ ].
Strong reductants lead to small monodisperse particles, while the generation of larger size particles can be difficult to control. Weaker reductants produce slower reduction reactions, but the nanoparticles obtained tend to be more polydisperse in size. Different studies reported the enlargement of particles in the secondary step from about 20—45 nm to — nm [ ]. Another general method for the production of different metal nanoparticles Au, Ag, Pt, Pd uses commonly available sugars, e. This approach has several important features: 1 sugars glucose, fructose, and sucrose are easily available and are used as reducing agents; 2 upon their exploitation no other stabilizing agent or capping agent is required to stabilize the nanoparticles; 3 sugars are very cheap and biofriendly 4 the nanoparticles can be safely preserved in a essiccator for months and redispersed in aqueous solution whenever required instead of being kept in aqueous solution.
An array of other physical and chemical methods have been used to produce nanomaterials. In order to synthesize noble metal nanoparticles of particular shape and size specific methodologies have been formulated, such as ultraviolet irradiation, aerosol technologies, lithography, laser ablation, ultrasonic fields, and photochemical reduction techniques, although they remain expensive and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, there is a growing concern to develop environment-friendly and sustainable methods. Biosynthesis of gold, silver, gold—silver alloy, selenium, tellurium, platinum, palladium, silica, titania, zirconia, quantum dots, magnetite and uraninite nanoparticles by bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts and viruses have been reported.
However, despite the stability, biological nanoparticles are not monodispersed and the rate of synthesis is slow. To overcome these problems, several factors such as microbial cultivation methods and extraction techniques have to be optimized and factors such as shape, size and nature can be controlled through just modifying pH, temperature and nutrient media composition. Owing to the rich biodiversity of microbes, their potential as biological materials for nanoparticle synthesis is yet to be fully explored. The production of metal nanoparticles involves three main steps, including 1 selection of solvent medium; 2 selection of environmentally benign reducing agent; 3 selection of nontoxic substances for the nanoparticles stability [ ].
Biomineralization is also an attractive technique, being the best nature friendly method of nanoparticle synthesis. In one of the biomimetic approaches towards generation of nanocrystals of silver, reduction of silver ions has been carried out using bacteria and unicellular organisms. The reduction is mediated by means of an enzyme and the presence of the enzyme in the organism has been found to be responsible of the synthesis [ , ]. Therefore in search of a methodology that could provide safer and easier synthesis of metal nanoparticles, it seems that the biogenic synthesis using the filtrated supernatant of different bacterial and fungal cultures is having a considerable impact, where the reduction of metal ions occurs through the release of reductase enzymes into the solution [ 28 , , , ].
For an extensive coverage of the biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles by microbes, refer to the recent review by Narayanan and Sakthivel [ ]. In the crusade toward the development of drugs for the therapy of viral diseases, the emergence of resistant viral strains and adverse side effects associated with a prolonged use represent huge obstacles that are difficult to circumvent.
Therefore, multidisciplinary research efforts, integrated with classical epidemiology and clinical approaches, are crucial for the development of improved antivirals through alternative strategies. Nanotechnology has emerged giving the opportunity to re-explore biological properties of known antimicrobial compounds, such as metals, by the manipulation of their sizes. Metal nanoparticles, especially the ones produced with silver or gold, have proven to exhibit virucidal activity against a broad-spectrum of viruses, and surely to reduce viral infectivity of cultured cells. In most cases, a direct interaction between the nanoparticle and the virus surface proteins could be demonstrated or hypothesized.
The intriguing problem to be solved is to understand the exact site of interaction and how to modify the nanoparticle surface characteristics for a broader and more effective use. Besides the direct interaction with viral surface glycoproteins, metal nanoparticles may gain access into the cell and exert their antiviral activity through interactions with the viral genome DNA or RNA.
Furthermore, the intracellular compartment of an infected cell is overcrowded by virally encoded and host cellular factors that are needed to allow viral replication and a proper production of progeny virions. The interaction of metal nanoparticles with these factors, which are the key to an efficient viral replication, may also represent a further mechanism of action Figure 2. Schematic model of a virus infecting an eukaryotic cell and antiviral mechanism of metal nanoparticles. Most of the published literature describes the antiviral activity of silver or gold nanoparticles against enveloped viruses, with both a DNA or an RNA genome. Considering that one of the main arguments toward the efficacy of the analysed nanoparticles is the fact that they in virtue of their shape and size, can interact with virus particles with a well-defined spatial arrangement, the possibility of metal nanoparticles being active against naked viruses seems appealing.
Moreover, it has been already proven that both silver and gold nanoparticles may be used as a core material. However, no reports are yet available for the use of other metals, but the future holds many surprises, especially considering that the capping molecules that could be investigated are virtually unlimited. Nonetheless, for metal nanoparticles to be used in therapeutic or prophylactic treatment regimens, it is critical to understand the in vivo toxicity and potential for long-term sequelae associated with the exposure to these compounds.
Additional research is needed to determine how to safely design, use, and dispose products containing metal nanomaterials without creating new risk to humans or the environment. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Molecules v. Published online Oct Find articles by Annarita Falanga. Find articles by Mariateresa Vitiello. Find articles by Marco Cantisani. Find articles by Veronica Marra. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Virus infections pose significant global health challenges, especially in view of the fact that the emergence of resistant viral strains and the adverse side effects associated with prolonged use continue to slow down the application of effective antiviral therapies. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, virus infection, antiviral therapy. Introduction Viruses represent one of the leading causes of disease and death worldwide.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Key steps in the virus replication cycle that provide antiviral targets. Metal Nanoparticles and Antiviral Activity Metal nanoparticles have been studied for their antimicrobial potential and have proven to be antibacterial agents against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria [ 4 , 5 , 21 , 26 , 36 ]. Table 1 Antiviral metal nanoparticles. Retroviridae Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS , the disease caused by HIV, is responsible for over two million deaths per year, among more than 33 million people that are infected. Paramyxoviridae Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and infects the epithelium of the lungs and the respiratory tract causing serious respiratory disease, especially in children and older people.
Orthomyxoviridae The influenza virus is a highly contagious pathogen that causes annual epidemics in the human population, and is much feared for its potential to generate new viruses able to jump to humans from different animal species and causing pandemics. Poxviridae Monkeypox virus MPV , an orthopoxvirus similar to variola virus, is the causative agent of monkeypox in many species of non-human primates, but it is also a human pathogen with a clinical presentation similar to that of smallpox. Arenaviridae The family Arenaviridae is composed of 18 different species of viruses divided into two antigenic groups, the Old World and New World Tacaribe complex groups.
Virus Inactivation for Water Treatment The removal of viruses from water and the environment in general is of paramount important for health safety maintenance of our modern society that profoundly relies on water safety for drinking and leisure activities. Toxicity Although the continuous evolutions in the field of metal-based nanoparticles for drug delivery, medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutics and engineering technology, there is a serious lack of information about the impact of metal nanoparticles on human health and environment, probably due to the intrinsic complex nature of nanoparticles that have led to different attitudes on their safety.
Metal Nanoparticles Production Nanoparticles are nanoscale clusters of metallic atoms, engineered for some practical purpose, most typically antimicrobial and sterile applications. Conclusions In the crusade toward the development of drugs for the therapy of viral diseases, the emergence of resistant viral strains and adverse side effects associated with a prolonged use represent huge obstacles that are difficult to circumvent. Figure 2. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Henderson D. Principles and lessons from the smallpox eradication programme. World Health Organ. Hull H. Paralytic poliomyelitis: Seasoned strategies, disappearing disease. Esteban D. Mechanisms of viral emergence. Morones J. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles.
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